The requisite to increase the capacity of an existing building as per safety policy for earthquake proof buildings, to survive against the seismic forces rises typically from the indication of the caused damage & bad performance during an earthquake. It can also arise from computations or by evaluations with some similar buildings that have been damaged at other spots. In the first case, the landlord can be relatively convinced easily for taking up some earthquake protection actions, for improving the strength of the building. Whereas in the second case residents that have much more stringent day-to-day needs are generally hesitant to spend money for improvement of seismic safety as a part of earthquake preparedness.

The hurdles during repairs, restoration & seismic strengthening of buildings are concisely listed below:

(i) Before the occurrence of a likely earthquake, the essential strengthening of seismically weak buildings is to be identified by a survey & examination of the structures.

(ii) Just after a destructive earthquake, emergency repairs & temporary supports are to be conceded so that hazardously standing buildings may not fall during aftershocks & the less damaged ones could be quickly brought back into routine.

(iii) The actual repair & strengthening difficulties are faced at the stage once things start settling down, after the earthquake. At this stage difference has to be made in the type of action required, that is, repairs, restoration & strengthening, since the cost, time & skill required for them may differ.

Strengthening of existing masonry (Small cracks)


Large cracks & crushed concrete


Strengthening RC Members

three3 four4

Strengthening an arched opening in masonry wall


Strengthening with wire mesh & mortar


Strengthening of Foundations


Connection of new and old brick walls (T-junction) & Connection of new brick wall with existing stone wall



autocad command shortcut key list

AutoCAD Command Shortcut Key list

AutoCAD commands List are sometimes long winded & hard to type particularly if they are being used over and over again. As such command shortcuts keys they have been a part of the software for some time now.

Sadly many users do not make use of them, as they are not aware of them. The table below shows some of the Shortcuts, to help you out work faster, saving your time:


ATT ATTDEF Opens attribute definition dialogue box
ATTEDIT ATTEDIT Edit attribute values for a specific block
B BLOCK Opens block dialogue box in order to make a block
BATTMAN BATTMAN Opens block attribute manager
BATTORDER BATTORDER Displays attribute order dialogue box
BC BCLOSE Closes the block editor
BCOUNT BCOUNT Counts the blocks in a drawing
BE BEDIT Opens the edit block definition dialogue box
EATTEXT EATTEXT Enhanced attribute extraction wizard to count blocks
GATTE GATTE Global attribute edit of multiple blocks
I INSERT Opens insert dialogue to insert a block
-I INSERT Insert a block by name
MINSERT MINSERT Insert block in rectangular array
REFEDIT REFEDIT Edit a block reference in place
REN RENAME Opens rename dialogue box to rename blocks, layers, etc
W WBLOCK Write a block – for use in other drawings
XLIST XLIST Lists type/block name/layer name/color/linetype of a
nested object in a block or an xref


  1. Create a new block on layer 0 so that the block will use the layer and properties of the current layer it is inserted on. Text can be set to colour white.
  2. Set ATTDIA to 1 to use dialog box with block attributes or 0 to use command line.
  3. AutoCAD 2006 allows you to change the insertion point on the fly. INSERT and select BASEPOINT. This allows you to pick anywhere in the drawing (and anywhere in the block you are inserting) as your new insertion point (basepoint).


A ARC Draw an arc
AL ALIGN Align an object with another
AP APPLOAD Opens application load dialogue box
AR ARRAY Opens array dialogue box
AUDIT AUDIT Audit drawing for errors
AV DSVIEWER Opens ariel view of drawing
B BLOCK Opens block dialogue box
C CIRCLE Draw a circle
CO COPY Copy an object
CHA CHAMFER Chamfer between 2 non-parallel lines
COL COLOR Opens select color dialogue box
CUI Opens customise user interface dialogue
D DIMSTYLE Opens dimstyle manager
DC ADCENTER Opens designcenter
DI DIST Check a distance
DIV DIVIDE Inserts point node a set division
DO DONUT Draw a solid donut shape
DV DVIEW Perspective view
E ERASE Erase a selection
EX EXTEND Extend a selection
F FILLET Draw an arc between 2 intersecting lines
FI FILTER Opens filter dialogue box
G GROUP Launches the group dialogue box
H HATCH Opens hatch and gradient dialogue box
I INSERT Insert a block
IM IMAGE Launches image manager
J JOIN Joins 2 objects to form single object
JPGOUT JPGOUT Creates a JPEG file of current drawing
L LINE Draw a line
LA LAYER Opens layer manager
LE QLEADER Draw a leader line (may need to adjust settings)
LEAD LEADER Leader line with annotation
LI or LS LIST Display information about objects in a text window
LO -LAYOUT Creates a new layout tab
LTS LTScale Change the linetype scale
M MOVE Move a selection
MA MATCHPROPERTIES Match properties of an object
ME MEASURE Inserts point node at input distance
O OFFSET Offset a selection
OP OPTIONS Launches options dialogue box
P PAN Pan in drawing
PE POLYEDIT Edit a polyline
PL PLINE Draw a polyline
PLOT PLOT Opens plot/print dialogue box
PO POINT Point marker or node – DDPTYPE to change pointstyle
PR PROPERTIES Opens properties dialogue box
PRE PREVIEW Preview a plot
PU PURGE Opens purge dialogue box to remove unused elements
RE REGEN Regenerate the display
REC RECTANG Draw a rectangle
REN RENAME Opens rename dialogue box to rename blocks, layers, etc
RO ROTATE Rotate a selection
SP SPELL Spell check a selection – ALL to check entire drawing
T MTEXT Insert multiline text
TB TABLE Opens insert a table dialogue box
TP TOOLPALETTES Displays toolpalette
TR TRIM Trim a selection
U UNDO Undo last command
UN UNITS Opens units dialogue box
V VIEW Opens view dialogue box
W WBLOCK Write a block
CAD _003
WHOHAS WHOHAS Displays who has a drawing open
X EXPLODE Explode a selection
XR XREF Opens x-reference manager
Z ZOOM Zoom in display – A=All, E=EXTENTS, W=WINDOW


CTRL+0 CLEANSCREEN Turns user interface elements on/off
CTRL+1 PROPERTIES Turns properties on/off
CTRL+2 ADCENTER Turns design center on/off
CTRL+3 TOOLPALETTES Turns tool palettes window on/off
CTRL+8 QUICKCALC Launches calculator window
CTRL+A Select all
CTRL+C COPYCLIP Copies objects to clipboard
CTRL+H Turns a group on or off
CTRL+J Repeats last command
CTRL+N NEW Opens create new drawing dialogue box
CTRL+O OPEN Opens the select file dialogue box
CTRL+P PLOT Opens the plot dialogue box
CTRL+R CVPORT Switches between viewports
CTRL+S QSAVE Opens the save drawing as dialogue box
CTRL+V PASTECLIP Pastes data from clipboard to drawing
CTRL+X CUTCLIP Removes select object from drawing to clipboard
CTRL+Y REDO Performs the operation ccanceledby UNDO
CTRL+Z UNDO Undoes the last operation
CTRL+TAB Switches between open drawings
CTRL+PAGE Switch up between layout tabs
CTRL+PAGE Switch down between layout tabs
ARROW Recall last command


#X,Y Location measured by distance from 0,0 in current UCS
@X,Y Location measured by distance from last point
#distance<angle Location measured by distance and angle from 0,0 in current UCS
@distance<angl Location measured by distance and angle from last point
.x or.y or .xy etc Location by extracting and combining coordinate values from 2 or 3 points
distance Location direct from current position in direction of movement
<angle An angle override from current point


CTRL+8 QUICKCALC Displays the calculator
D DIMSTYLE Opens dimension style manager dialogue box
DAL DIMALIGNED Aligned linear dimension line
DAN DIMANGULAR Angular dimension line
DAR DIMARC Arc length dimension
DBA DIMBASELINE Ordinate dimension from baseline of previous dimension
DCO DIMCONTINUE Ordinate dimension from 2nd extension line of previous
DDI DIMDIAMETER Diameter dimension for circles and arcs
DED DIMEDIT Edit dimension text on dimension objects
DI DIST Check a distance
DIMCENTER DIMCENTER Creates center mark
DLI DIMLINEAR Linear dimension
DOR DIMORDINATE Ordinate point dimension
DOV DIMOVERRIDE Override dimension style
DRA DIMRADIUS Radial dimension for circles and arcs
ID ID Display the co-ordinate values of a point
UN UNITS Opens drawing  units dialogue box


A ARC Draw an arc with 3 points
B BLOCK Opens block dialogue box in order to make a block
BO BOUNDARY Draw a boundary
C CIRCLE Draw a circle
DO DONUT Draw a solid donut shape
DT TEXT Single line text
DIV DIVIDE Inserts point node a set division
EL ELLIPSE Draw an ellipse
F FILLET Draw an arc between 2 intersecting lines
G GROUP Opens object grouping dialogue
H HATCH Opens hatch and gradient dialogue box
L LINE Draw a line
LE QLEADER Draw a leader line (may need to adjust settings)
LEAD LEADER Leader line with annotation
ML MLINE Draw multilines
O OFFSET Offset an object by distance
PL PLINE Draw a polyline – a complex line
PO POINT Point marker or node – DDPTYPE to change pointstyle
POL POLYGON Draw a regular polygon 3 to 1024 sides
RAY RAY Construction line in one direction
REC RECTANG Draw a rectangle
REG REGION Region – for shading for example
REVCLOUD REVCLOUD Revision cloud – note can select a polyline
SPL SPLINE Spline or smooth curve along points
T MTEXT Multi-line text
WIPEOUT WIPEOUT Masks part of drawing for clarity
XL XLINE Construction line of infinite length


  1. Use PO to create node point – if you do not see anything try changing the node properties DDPTYPE.
  1. Alternatively set PDMODE to 3 to display an X at id point set PDMODE to 0 to clear.


REFEDIT REFEDIT Edit an external reference in place
XA XATTACH Opens select reference file dialogue for attaching Xref
XB XBIND Opens Xbind dialogue – allows import only of symbols etc
XC XCLIP Create a border in an xref to hide outside area
XOPEN XOPEN Opens a selected xref in a new window
XR XREF Opens Xref manager dialogue box


  1. Using RELATIVE PATH to find the Xref file relative to the existing location can be a benefit if files are moved between locations or sent to others.
  1. OVERLAID should be used in place of ATTACH if 2 drawings share a common Xref, eg a mechanical drawing could be overlaid an electrical drawing to prevent the building outline appearing twice.


  1. If a drawing has an Xref, the status bar will show the Manage Xref icon.


AP APPLOAD Opens application load dialogue box
BE BEDIT Opens the edit block definition dialogue box
BH BHATCH Opens hatch and gradient dialogue box
CUI Opens customise user interface dialogue
D DIMSTYLE Opens dimension style manager dialogue box
DC ADCENTER Opens designcenter
DDPTYPE DDPTYPE Opens point style dialogue box
LA LAYER Opens layer manager
LT DDLTYPE Opens line type manager
LTS LTSCALE Change the linetype scale
LW LWEIGHT Opens line weight settings dialogue box
MA MATCHPROPERTIES Match properties of an object
OP OPTIONS Launches options dialogue box
OS DDOSNAP Opens drafting settings object snap dialogue
PR DDCHPROP Opens properties dialogue box
SSM SHEETSET Opens sheet set manager palette
ST DDSTYLE Opens text style dialogue box
TP TOOLPALETTES Displays toolpalette
TS TABLESTYLE Opens table style dialogue box


F1 HELP Opens Autocad help
F2 TEXTSCR Switches between text screen and graphics area
F3 OSNAP Switches osnap on/off
F5 or CTRL+E ISOPLANE Cycles through isoplanes
F6 or CTRL+D COORDS Turns coordinate display on/off
F7 or CTRL+G GRID Turns grid on/off
F8 or CTRL+L ORTHO Turns ortho on/off
F9 or CTRL+B SNAP Turns snap on/off
F10 or CTRL+U POLAR Turns polar on/off
F11 or OSNAP TRACK Turns object snap tracking on/off
F12 DYNMODE Turns dynamic input on/off


AA AREA Calculate the area
DI DIST Calculate a distance and angle
DDPTYPE DDPTYPE Opens point style dialogue box
ID ID Display the co-ordinate values of a point
LI or LS LIST Display information about objects in a text window
MASSPROP MASSPROP Calculate the region/mass properties of a solid
PR PROPERTIES Opens properties dialogue box
WHOHAS WHOHAS Displays who has a drawing open
XLIST XLIST Lists type/block name/layer name/color/linetype of a
nested object in a block or an xref


  1. If you wish to identify a known location use ID and enter coordinates on command line to mark that location with a node point – if you do not see anything try changing the node properties DDPTYPE.
  1. Alternatively set PDMODE to 3 to display an X at id point set PDMODE to 0 to clear.


LA LAYER Opens layer manager
LAYCUR LAYERCURRENT Change objects to current layer
LAYDEL LAYERDELETE Delete a layer by selecting object
LAYFRZ LAYERFREEZE Freeze a layer by selecting object
LAYISO LAYERISOLATE Isolates a layer by selecting object
LAYLCK LAYER LOOK Lock a layer by selecting object
LAYMCH PLAYER MATCH Match properties of a layer
LAYMRG LAYERMERGE Moves objects from the first layer to second and deletes first
LAYOFF LAYER OFF Switches a layer off
LAYON LAYER ON Switches all layers on except frozen layers
LAYERP LAYERPREVIOUS Restores previous layer state
LAYTHW LAYTHW Thaws all layers
LAYWALK LAYERWALK Walkthrough layers
LMAN LMAN Access Layer manager to save and restore layer states


Layer States – Create a layer state in Layer Manager (LA then Alt+S) to quickly switch between different layer property settings.


AL ALIGN Align an object with another
AR ARRAY Make multiple copies of an object
BR BREAK Break a line by defining 2 points
CO or CP COPY Copy object
COPYTOLAYE COPYTOLAYER Copy object from one layer to another
CHA CHAMFER Chamfer between 2 non-parallel lines
E ERASE Erase selection
EX EXTEND Extend a line to meet another
F FILLET Draw an arc between 2 intersecting lines
G GROUP Opens object grouping dialogue – use to copy or move
LEN LENGTHEN Lengthen or shorten a line
M MOVE Move an object
MI MIRROR Mirror an object
MOCORO MOVE/COPY/ROTAT Copy move and rotate an object with one command
O OFFSET Offset an object by distance
RO ROTATE Rotate an object
S STRETCH Stretch an object
SC SCALE Scale an object
TR TRIM Trim objects
X EXPLODE Explode single entity to component parts


  1. When a grip point is selected cycle through command options using keyboard spacebar – sequence STRETCH, MOVE, ROTATE, SCALE, MIRROR.
  2. Switch between Group and Ungroup using CTRL+H, yes H!!

OBJECT SELECTION (use with editing commands)

An ADD Adds each successive object, switches from remove
ALL ALL All objects on thawed layers
CP POLYGON Objects touching or enclosed by selection polygon
C CROSSING Objects touched or enclosed by window – Move right to
F FENCE Objects touch by single selection fence
G GROUP Opens object grouping dialogue – use with copy/move/etc
L LAST Most recently created visible object
P PREVIOUS Most recent selection set
R REMOVE Objects to remove from selection set
SNAPANG SNAPANGLE Change the snap angle from default 0°
W WINDOW Objects enclosed by window – Move left to right
WP WPOLYGON Objects within a window polygon


  1. Use SHIFT+LEFT MOUSE BUTTON to deselect an object.
  1. When a grip point is selected cycle through command options using keyboard spacebar – sequence STRETCH, MOVE, ROTATE, SCALE, MIRROR.
  1. Object Cycling – hold down the Control key while picking, AutoCAD will cycle through all the objects that fall under the pick box as you continue to pick. When the correct object is highlighted, simply hit Enter. You don’t need to continue to hold down the Control key after the first pick.


F3 OSNAP Switches snap on/off
F9 or CTRL+B SNAP Turns snap on/off
F11 or OSNAP TRACK Turns object snap tracking on/off
APP APPARENT INT Apparent intersection of 2 objects
CEN CENof Snap to center point
DS DDOSNAP Opens drafting settings/object snap dialogue
END ENDPOINT Snap to end of line etc
EXT EXTENSION Extends lines beyond endpoint
FRO FROM Snap to an offset distance from an object snap
INS INSERTION Snap to insertion point of text or block
INT INTERSECTION Snap to intersection of lines, circles, arcs
MID MIDPOINT Snap to midpoint of line etc
MTP Snap midpoint between two points
NEA NEAREST Snap near to an object
NOD NODE Snap to point node
NON NONE Turns off object snap modes
PAR PARALLEL Continues a line parallel to existing
PER PERPENDICULAR Snap to perpendicular of line etc
QUA QUADRANT Snap quadrant of circle, arc, ellipse
TAN TANGENT Snap to tangent of circle, arc, ellipse
TK TRACK Locate points without drawing lines
TT TT Temporary tracking point


  1. Use TAB to cycle through Osnap points.
  2. SHIFT+RIGHT MOUSE BUTTON to reveal Osnap options


%%C A+ Diameter dimensioning symbol
%%D ° Degrees symbol
%%O OVERSCORE Toggles overscore mode on/off
%%P ± Plus/minus symbol
%%U UNDERSCORE Toggles underscore on/off
CAD _003
DT DTEXT Single line dynamic text – Justify/Align to fit within text
ED DDEDIT Edit text
FIND FIND Opens find and replace dialogue box
JUSTIFYTEXT JUSTIFYTEXT Change the justification point without moving text
MIRRTEXT MIRRTEXT Mirrtext 0 to turn off
SCALETEXT SCALETEXT Scales text without moving the text insertion point
SPELL SPELLCHECK Performs spellcheck – ALL checks all text in drawing
ST STYLE Opens text style dialogue box
T or MT MTEXT Multiline/paragraph text
TCIRCLE TCIRCLE Places circle, slot, or rectangle around each selected text
TEXT DTEXT Single line dynamic text
TEXTFIT TEXTFIT Stretches/shrinks text by selecting new start and/or end
TORIENT TORIENT Rotates text, mtext, and attribute definition objects
WIPEOUT WIPEOUT Masks part of drawing for clarity


  1. To fit or align text in a defined area use DTEXT and select JUSTIFY/ALIGN or FIT – very useful if text is enclosed by a rectangle/ circle/etc.


  1. Text entered in paperspace is 1:1, e.g. 5mm high text will print 5mm high.


3D 3D Command line 3D solid options
BOX BOX Draw a cube
DDUCS DDUCS Opens ucs dialogue
DDUCSP DDUCSP Opens ucs dialogue at orthographic tab
EXT EXTRUDE Extrude a face
IN INTERSECT Intersect an object
REV REVOLVE Revolves an object about an axis
RR RENDER Open render dialogue box
SL SLICE Slice a solid
SU SUBTRACT Subtract selection from solid
TOR TORUS Draw torus shape
UC DDUCS Displays UCS manager dialogue box
UCS UCS UCS command line options
UNI UNION Union solids
VPORTS VPORTS Opens viewport dialogue box
WE WEDGE Draw a wedge


OB OBJECT Align UCS with an object, first select UCS
UC DDUCS Display UCS manager dialogue box
UCS UCS Universal co-ordinate system options
UCSICON UCSICON Change the UCS icon appearance
W WORLD Return to the WCS


CTRL+R Cycle through viewports
CTRL+PAGE Switch up between layout tabs
CTRL+PAGE Switch down between layout tabs
DV DVIEW Perspective view.
MS MSPACE Switch to model space in a viewport
MV MVIEW Make a viewport in paper space
PS PSPACE Switch to paper space from viewport
VPORTS VPORTS Opens viewports dialogue box
-VPORTS -VPORTS Create a viewport using command line


  1. To prevent a viewport from editing right mouse click on the viewport and select DISPLAY LOCKED/YES

3D Structural Analysis and Design Software – STAAD.Pro – Bentley Shortcut Keys


Here are some shortcuts that will help you work like a pro with 3D Structural Analysis and Design Software – STAAD Pro – Bentley. Use these shortcut keys to save your time and speed up your work. further more can be available from staad pro manual.


Short Cut Keys

Shift + K : display node point

Shift + N : display node number

Shift + D : display dimension

Shift + S : display support

Shift + X : display sections

Shift + J : display references

Shift +M : display material

Shift + I : display axis at origin

Shift + B : display beam no.

Shift + G : display diagram information

Shift + A : display beam specification

Shift + O : display beam orientation

Shift + E : display beam ends

Shift + R : display releases

Shift + F : display floor loading

Shift + V : display load values

Shift + H : display wind load contributory area

Shift + Y : display floor load distribution

Shift + P : display plate no.

Shift + W : display wind load

Shift + C : display solid no.

Shift + T : display plate orientation

Ctrl + Shift + T : display surface orientation

Ctrl + Shift + P : display surface no.

Ctrl + Shift + M : display member no.

Ctrl + Shift +A : display axis window

Shift + L : display master slave

Ctrl + Shift + G : display design group

Ctrl + shift + B : display design brief

Ctrl + shift + E : display design envelope

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staad pro commands list for Windows.

precast concrete

What is Precast Concrete? Pros and Cons of it

Precast concrete is a construction product generated by casting concrete in a reusable mold or “form” which is then treated in a controlled environment, conveyed to the construction site & lifted into place. Whereas, standard concrete is decanted into site-specific forms & cured on site.

By generating precast concrete in a controlled environment (typically called as a precast plant), the precast concrete has the prospects of being properly cure and be carefully monitored by plant staffs. A precast concrete system has many advantages over onsite casting. Precast concrete production is carried out on ground level, which also helps with safety throughout a project. There is better hold over material quality & workmanship in a precast plant compared to a construction site. The forms used in a precast plant can be reused hundreds to thousands of times before they have to be replaced, when looking at the cost per unit of formwork; it often makes it cheaper than onsite casting.


  • Good quality control
  • Very rapid speed of erection
  • Rapid construction on site
  • Entire building can be precast-walls, floors, beams, etc.
  • Pre-stressing is easily done which can reduce the size and number of the structural members.
  • High quality because of the controlled conditions in the factory



  • Camber in beams and slabs
  • Very heavy members
  • Connections may be difficult
  • Very small margin for error
  • Because panel size is limited, precast concrete cannot be used for two-way structural systems.
  • Somewhat limited building design flexibility
  • Need for repetition of forms affects building design.
  • Joints between panels are often expensive and complicated.
  • Economics of scale demand regularly shaped buildings.
  • Cranes are required to lift panels.
  • Skilled workmanship is needed in the application of the panel on site.

Green Building Introduction & its Construction

Materials Used in Construction of Green Buildings


The concept of sustainable or green building integrates & incorporates a wide range of approaches during the design, construction & execution of building projects. The utilization of green building products & materials signifies an important approach in the design of a building.

Green building materials provide certain benefits to the building occupants & building owner:

  • Energy conservation.
  • Reduced maintenance/replacement costs over the life of the building.
  • Better design flexibility.
  • Enhanced occupant health & productivity.
  • Lower costs associated with changing space configurations.

Construction & building activities globally utilize raw materials of 3 billion tons each year or 40% of total worldwide use. Using green building products and materials encourages conservation of dwindling nonrenewable resources internationally. Moreover, integrating green building materials into building projects can help in decreasing the environmental effects following the extraction, processing, transport, fabrication, installation, recycling, reuse, & dumping of these building industry source materials.

Rather than nonrenewable resources, green building materials are composed of renewable resources.

What is Green Building?

“Green building,” or sustainable design & construction provide a chance to use resources more efficiently, while creating healthier & more energy-efficient residential homes & commercial buildings. Fruitful green buildings have lighter effects on the environment by conserving resources, and at the same time harmonizing cost-effectiveness, energy-efficient, low-maintenance products for construction needs. Green-building design also comprises finding the subtle balance amongst home building & a sustainable environment.

Overall material/product selection criteria:

  • Indoor air quality
  • Resource efficiency
  • Water conservation
  • Affordability
  • Energy efficiency


Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is improved with materials that satisfy the following standards:

  • Minimal chemical emissions: Material that have negligible productions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Products that also maximize resource & energy efficiency whereas reducing chemical emissions.
  • Low or non-toxic: Materials that discharge few or no carcinogens, reproductive toxicants, or irritants as showed by the manufacturer through appropriate testing.
  • Moistureresistant: Products & systems that prevent moisture or obstruct the evolution of biological contaminants in buildings.
  • Low-VOC assembly: Materials fixed with minimal VOC-producing compounds, or no-VOC mechanical attachment methods & minimal hazards.
  • Systems or equipment:Material that stimulate healthy IAQ by identifying indoor air pollutants or augmenting the air quality.
  • Healthfully maintained: Materials, components, & systems that need only non-toxic, simple, or low-VOC approaches of cleaning.


Resource Efficiency can be stretched by the materials, which satisfy the below mentioned criteria:

  • Natural, renewable: Materials reaped from sustainably managed sources and rather have an independent certification (e.g., certified wood) & are certified by an independent third party.
  • Recycled Content: Products with recognizable recycled content, counting postindustrial content with a preference for postconsumer content.
  • Locally available: Building materials, components, & systems available locally or regionally saving energy & resources in transportation to the project site.
  • Resource effective manufacturing approach:Material manufactured with resource-efficient processes with reducing energy consumption, minimizing waste (recyclable, recycled & or source reduced product packaging), & reducing greenhouse gases.
  • Recyclable or reusable:Choose materials that can be easily dismantled and reused or recycled at the end of their beneficial life.
  • Refurbished, remanufactured, or salvaged: Comprises saving a material from disposal & renovating, repairing, restoring, or usually refining the appearance, performance, quality, functionality, or value of a product.
  • Durable: Materials that are long lasting or are similar to conventional products with long life prospects.
  • Recycled or recyclable product packaging: Products packaged with recycled content or recyclable packaging.

Materials having following criteria can be said to be Water Conservative:

  • Systems & products that help preserve water in buildings & decrease water consumption in landscaped areas

Affordability can be measured when building product life-cycle costs are akin to conventional materials or as a whole, are within a project-defined percentage of the overall budget.


Energy Efficiency can be made the most by using materials & systems that have below property:

  • Materials, components, & systems that help preserve energy consumption in buildings & facilities.


What are Architectural Plans & Drawings?

Architectural plan is a design and planning for a building, and can comprise of architectural drawings, design specifications, computations, time scheduling of the building process, and other important documentation.

Architectural Drawing


Architectural drawings are made for a number of purposes like: to develop a design idea into a clear proposal, for communication between ideas & concepts, to assure clients about the merits of a design, to assist a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work or a building that already exists.

Architectural Design Values

Architectural design values are very crucial part of what impacts designers & architects when they mark their design decisions. Though, designers and architects do not always get influenced by the same intentions & values. Intentions & value vary among different architectural movements. It also varies between various schools of architecture & schools of design as well as amid individual designers & architects.

Building Construction

Building construction is the procedure of preparing & developing buildings and building systems.  Starting with planning, design, and funding, construction lasts till the building is complete for possession. Away from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Usually, a project manager manages the job, and supervised by design engineer, construction manager, project architect or construction engineer. For the fruitful execution of a project, effective planning is essential.

Architectural Plans

Architectural plans are comprehensive sketches of structures that show the completed building structure. These can also be called as floor plans or blueprints. When a structure is intended to function as a residential building, it may also be called as a home plan. Together with a possible list of materials & design notes, architectural plans will usually include any elevation changes.

The contractor uses the map, which is the layout of the building in the architectural plans, to construct the building. The layout must note any elevation changes, such as those demanding slopes or steps, both outside, and within the building. The plans will be required to drawn with a scale that is uniform throughout the plan, unless modifications are noted. The scale may be enlarged to demonstrate more detail in some of the cases, but this detail is set aside from the main plans generally.

Indian Celebrity Shahrukh Khan Home

7 Most Expensive Bollywood Celebrity Houses in India

Celebrities in India, just like in any other country, are known to be the holders of the most expensive and sleekest things the world offers. Houses are the best examples of them. Indian celebrities usually have worth of million assets like houses. These celebrities are well-known because of their outstanding performance in the industry, where they belong. Here are the 7 most expensive Indian celebrity houses:

7. John Abraham



This Indian celebrity has attained a lot of attention from his acting, modeling and film producing career in Bollywood. He possesses really luxurious penthouse, which is elegantly designed by his brother and father. However, overall worth of this penthouse is not shown to the public.

6. Ranbir Kapoor


This award-winning Bollywood actor is one of those Indian celebrities who own classy & expensive houses. Since he is a self-proclaimed mama’s boy, he is living with his parents. His very luxurious house is exactly situated in Krishna Raj.

5. Akshay Kumar


Akshay Kumar is very famous on screen name in Bollywood. His real name is Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia, and he has already been relishing his prosperous career in Bollywood for a number of years. Actually, by now there are above 100 Hindi movies he has made. So, there is no question why his sea-facing duplex flat house is exceptionally lavish. Though, nobody knows the exact value of this house. It is positioned in Juhu, specifically in Prime Beach.

4. Salman Khan


Abdul Rashid Salim Salman Khan, the well-known Indian actor who is famously known as Salman Khan possesses the Galaxy Apartments, which is a very expensive house in India. This house is worth Rs. 16 crores. He lives in such superior size of a house for a purpose. At first floor of this house, he entertains his fans who want to see him personally.

3. Aamir Khan


Aamir Khan is earning a considerable amount of money from his tremendously successful career in Bollywood. So, it’s not at all surprising why he can afford to buy the most luxurious things in the world just like houses. He possesses an extremely expensive home that is worth Rs. 60 crores.

2. Amitabh Bachchan



This 73-year-old Indian actor has already been in the Bollywood industry for several years. Hence, there’s no question why he possesses a very expensive house in India. It is said that he holds five houses within the city of Mumbai. Yet, his Jalsa mansion where his family lives has an estimated worth of Rs. 112 crores.

1. Shah Rukh Khan



Shah Rukh Khan, who occurs to be the second richest actor in Bollywood, owns the stunning and luxurious mansion being referred to as Mannat. The estimated value of this mansion is about Rs. 200 crores. It is located in Bandra, Mumbai. The best thing about this house is that it can never be demolished as it was declared as a heritage site.

These are the 7 most expensive Indian celebrity houses. Watching these houses in real will completely put you in the state of amazement.


What Are The Types of Frame Structures

Frame structures are the constructions having a blend of column, beam & slab to bear the adjacent and gravity loads. These structures are generally used to overcome the large moments emerging owing to the applied loading.

Frame structures types:

Frames structures can be categorized as:

1. Rigid frame structure

Which can be further differentiated as:

  • Fixed ended
  • Pin ended

2. Braced frame structure:


  • Portal frames
  • Gabled frames
frame-structures advantages

Rigid Structural Frame


The word rigid implies the ability to stand the deformation. Rigid frame structures can be defined as the structures having columns & beams, made monolithically & acting together to tolerate the moments which are producing as a result of applied load.

Rigid frame structures offer further stability. These kinds of frame structures bear the moment, shear & torsion more efficiently as compared to any other type of frame structures. This is the reason, why this frame system is utilized in world’s most amazing structure Burj Al-Arab.

Braced Structural Frames


With this frame system, bracing are commonly provided between columns & beams to surge their resistance besides the sideways forces and lateral forces because of an applied load. Bracing is typically done by positioning the diagonal members amid the columns & beams.

This frame system offers more effective resistance against the wind forces & earthquake and is also more effective than the rigid frame system.


Pin Ended Rigid Structural Frames

A pinned ended rigid frame system commonly has pins as their support conditions. If its support conditions are removed, this frame system is reflected to be non-rigid.

pinned frame Structure

Fix Ended Rigid Frame Structure:

In this kind of rigid frame systems end conditions are generally fixed.

Fix Ended Rigid Frame Structure

Gabled Structural Frame:

Gabled frame structures have the peak at their top. These frames systems are used in the places with chances of heavy rainfall or snowfall.

Portal Structural Frame

Portal structural frames generally look like a door. This frame system is much in use for construction of commercial & industrial buildings.


Load first transmits from slab to beams, then to from beam to columns, and then from columns it handovers it to the base.

load path

Merits of Frame Structures

  1. Frame structures can be constructed rapidly.
  2. One of the best benefits of frame structures is their ease in construction. It is very easy to train the labor at the construction site.
  3. As economy also plays a very important role in the design of building systems. Frame structures have economical designs.

Demerits of Frames:

In frames structures, span lengths are typically restricted to 40ft when normal reinforced concrete. Or else spans larger than that can source lateral deflections.

Olympic Park Top View

Rio 2016: How will the Olympic Park look?

In six months at the Rio Olympics, a wide range of settings will greet sports & athletes fans, from the magnificent Maracana stadium to a sewage-filled bay.

This is the first time the Summer Games are hosted by a South American city & the challenge has been made all tougher for Brazil since the economy went into free-fall.

According to organizers, the best news is that nearly all stadiums & arenas are either complete or 97% prepared.

But then with Brazil’s recession showing no let-up, the pressure is on.

Roi Olympic Park 2016


For the Rio Olympics, Brazil’s most iconic city has been divided into 4 hubs. The Olympic Park in the well-off western Barra de Tijuca area is the chief complex, which particularly will have most swimming, tennis, gymnastics, judo and wrestling events.

Deodoro, a meek neighbourhood in the northwest of Rio that generally doesn’t get many tourists, will have sports comprising field hockey, riding, rugby sevens and canoeing.

Rowing, sailing, beach volleyball & long-distance swimming events will be conducted at or near the famous Copacabana beach, southern Rio.

Some dazzling events — the opening & closing ceremonies and athletics competitions — will be held in two northern football stadiums: the famous Maracana & the Joao Havelange stadium, now also known as the Olympic Stadium.

The football tournament will be spread around the country at former 2014 World Cup sites, before final rounds focus in Rio at the Maracana & Olympic stadiums.



Glimpse of Rio 2016: Olympics Park




The Museum of Tomorrow is a standout architectural monument in Rio’s harbor zone, revitalized as part of the city’s Olympic preparations.


Main Press Center or MPC, where all the journalists will gather, while reporting on Rio Olympics.






The Aquatics Stadium is described by its architects as, “basically a glass box”.

Cable Bridge on Narmada River

Being built on the Narmada River, India’s longest cable bridge, will be launched soon

Bharuch. Gujarat:  The construction work on the India’s longest extra dosed bridge over Narmada River, near Bharuch on National Highway No. 8 is nearly getting its final stage.The unique cable bridge has a distance of 1344 meters and will cost Rs 379 crore. It is planned to be completed by December 2016.
Being built by L & T, the bridge is showing a good sign of relief for those facing traffic at the Sardar Bridge. The cabling work of 10 towers has been completed by 40 percent. The Bridge will be ready by December 2016. Per day 25,000 vehicles would be able to easily pass on.

It will be a four-lane bridge and would necessitate expenses of Rs 379 crore. An extra dosed bridge utilizes a structure that is often described as a cross between a girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge.

A look at bridge
– 1344 m length
– 20.8 m, width
– Tower: 10 by 18 meters high in shape
– yellow cable: 216 (each 25 to 40 meters of cable length)

Bridge being constructed at a cost of Rs 379 crore on these attributes
– 17. 4 meter 4 lane roads.
– Pavement (River View) 3 m.
– Lighting 1.344 km as per international parameters.
– More than 400 LED lights.
– Work began in October 2014.
– Will be completed by December 2016.

A K Sharma, general manager National Highways Authority of India said, “The Bridge will be all set for use by 2016. The work has been allocated to L&T Company. The bridge will have 10 spans & will be around 1.4 km in length. As a part of the extra dosed structural system, the bridge will have stay cables.”