precast concrete

What is Precast Concrete? Pros and Cons of it

Precast concrete is a construction product generated by casting concrete in a reusable mold or “form” which is then treated in a controlled environment, conveyed to the construction site & lifted into place. Whereas, standard concrete is decanted into site-specific forms & cured on site.

By generating precast concrete in a controlled environment (typically called as a precast plant), the precast concrete has the prospects of being properly cure and be carefully monitored by plant staffs. A precast concrete system has many advantages over onsite casting. Precast concrete production is carried out on ground level, which also helps with safety throughout a project. There is better hold over material quality & workmanship in a precast plant compared to a construction site. The forms used in a precast plant can be reused hundreds to thousands of times before they have to be replaced, when looking at the cost per unit of formwork; it often makes it cheaper than onsite casting.

Advantages:

  • Good quality control
  • Very rapid speed of erection
  • Rapid construction on site
  • Entire building can be precast-walls, floors, beams, etc.
  • Pre-stressing is easily done which can reduce the size and number of the structural members.
  • High quality because of the controlled conditions in the factory

 

Disadvantages:

  • Camber in beams and slabs
  • Very heavy members
  • Connections may be difficult
  • Very small margin for error
  • Because panel size is limited, precast concrete cannot be used for two-way structural systems.
  • Somewhat limited building design flexibility
  • Need for repetition of forms affects building design.
  • Joints between panels are often expensive and complicated.
  • Economics of scale demand regularly shaped buildings.
  • Cranes are required to lift panels.
  • Skilled workmanship is needed in the application of the panel on site.

Green Building Introduction & its Construction

Materials Used in Construction of Green Buildings

Introduction

The concept of sustainable or green building integrates & incorporates a wide range of approaches during the design, construction & execution of building projects. The utilization of green building products & materials signifies an important approach in the design of a building.

Green building materials provide certain benefits to the building occupants & building owner:

  • Energy conservation.
  • Reduced maintenance/replacement costs over the life of the building.
  • Better design flexibility.
  • Enhanced occupant health & productivity.
  • Lower costs associated with changing space configurations.

Construction & building activities globally utilize raw materials of 3 billion tons each year or 40% of total worldwide use. Using green building products and materials encourages conservation of dwindling nonrenewable resources internationally. Moreover, integrating green building materials into building projects can help in decreasing the environmental effects following the extraction, processing, transport, fabrication, installation, recycling, reuse, & dumping of these building industry source materials.

Rather than nonrenewable resources, green building materials are composed of renewable resources.

What is Green Building?

“Green building,” or sustainable design & construction provide a chance to use resources more efficiently, while creating healthier & more energy-efficient residential homes & commercial buildings. Fruitful green buildings have lighter effects on the environment by conserving resources, and at the same time harmonizing cost-effectiveness, energy-efficient, low-maintenance products for construction needs. Green-building design also comprises finding the subtle balance amongst home building & a sustainable environment.

Overall material/product selection criteria:

  • Indoor air quality
  • Resource efficiency
  • Water conservation
  • Affordability
  • Energy efficiency

 

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is improved with materials that satisfy the following standards:

  • Minimal chemical emissions: Material that have negligible productions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Products that also maximize resource & energy efficiency whereas reducing chemical emissions.
  • Low or non-toxic: Materials that discharge few or no carcinogens, reproductive toxicants, or irritants as showed by the manufacturer through appropriate testing.
  • Moistureresistant: Products & systems that prevent moisture or obstruct the evolution of biological contaminants in buildings.
  • Low-VOC assembly: Materials fixed with minimal VOC-producing compounds, or no-VOC mechanical attachment methods & minimal hazards.
  • Systems or equipment:Material that stimulate healthy IAQ by identifying indoor air pollutants or augmenting the air quality.
  • Healthfully maintained: Materials, components, & systems that need only non-toxic, simple, or low-VOC approaches of cleaning.

 

Resource Efficiency can be stretched by the materials, which satisfy the below mentioned criteria:

  • Natural, renewable: Materials reaped from sustainably managed sources and rather have an independent certification (e.g., certified wood) & are certified by an independent third party.
  • Recycled Content: Products with recognizable recycled content, counting postindustrial content with a preference for postconsumer content.
  • Locally available: Building materials, components, & systems available locally or regionally saving energy & resources in transportation to the project site.
  • Resource effective manufacturing approach:Material manufactured with resource-efficient processes with reducing energy consumption, minimizing waste (recyclable, recycled & or source reduced product packaging), & reducing greenhouse gases.
  • Recyclable or reusable:Choose materials that can be easily dismantled and reused or recycled at the end of their beneficial life.
  • Refurbished, remanufactured, or salvaged: Comprises saving a material from disposal & renovating, repairing, restoring, or usually refining the appearance, performance, quality, functionality, or value of a product.
  • Durable: Materials that are long lasting or are similar to conventional products with long life prospects.
  • Recycled or recyclable product packaging: Products packaged with recycled content or recyclable packaging.

Materials having following criteria can be said to be Water Conservative:

  • Systems & products that help preserve water in buildings & decrease water consumption in landscaped areas

Affordability can be measured when building product life-cycle costs are akin to conventional materials or as a whole, are within a project-defined percentage of the overall budget.

 

Energy Efficiency can be made the most by using materials & systems that have below property:

  • Materials, components, & systems that help preserve energy consumption in buildings & facilities.

architectural-drawings

What are Architectural Plans & Drawings?

Architectural plan is a design and planning for a building, and can comprise of architectural drawings, design specifications, computations, time scheduling of the building process, and other important documentation.

Architectural Drawing

architectural-drawing

Architectural drawings are made for a number of purposes like: to develop a design idea into a clear proposal, for communication between ideas & concepts, to assure clients about the merits of a design, to assist a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work or a building that already exists.

Architectural Design Values

Architectural design values are very crucial part of what impacts designers & architects when they mark their design decisions. Though, designers and architects do not always get influenced by the same intentions & values. Intentions & value vary among different architectural movements. It also varies between various schools of architecture & schools of design as well as amid individual designers & architects.

Building Construction

Building construction is the procedure of preparing & developing buildings and building systems.  Starting with planning, design, and funding, construction lasts till the building is complete for possession. Away from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Usually, a project manager manages the job, and supervised by design engineer, construction manager, project architect or construction engineer. For the fruitful execution of a project, effective planning is essential.

Architectural Plans

Architectural plans are comprehensive sketches of structures that show the completed building structure. These can also be called as floor plans or blueprints. When a structure is intended to function as a residential building, it may also be called as a home plan. Together with a possible list of materials & design notes, architectural plans will usually include any elevation changes.

The contractor uses the map, which is the layout of the building in the architectural plans, to construct the building. The layout must note any elevation changes, such as those demanding slopes or steps, both outside, and within the building. The plans will be required to drawn with a scale that is uniform throughout the plan, unless modifications are noted. The scale may be enlarged to demonstrate more detail in some of the cases, but this detail is set aside from the main plans generally.

Indian Celebrity Shahrukh Khan Home

7 Most Expensive Bollywood Celebrity Houses in India

Celebrities in India, just like in any other country, are known to be the holders of the most expensive and sleekest things the world offers. Houses are the best examples of them. Indian celebrities usually have worth of million assets like houses. These celebrities are well-known because of their outstanding performance in the industry, where they belong. Here are the 7 most expensive Indian celebrity houses:

7. John Abraham

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john-house

This Indian celebrity has attained a lot of attention from his acting, modeling and film producing career in Bollywood. He possesses really luxurious penthouse, which is elegantly designed by his brother and father. However, overall worth of this penthouse is not shown to the public.

6. Ranbir Kapoor

Ranbir-Kapoor-House

This award-winning Bollywood actor is one of those Indian celebrities who own classy & expensive houses. Since he is a self-proclaimed mama’s boy, he is living with his parents. His very luxurious house is exactly situated in Krishna Raj.

5. Akshay Kumar

akshay-kumar-house

Akshay Kumar is very famous on screen name in Bollywood. His real name is Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia, and he has already been relishing his prosperous career in Bollywood for a number of years. Actually, by now there are above 100 Hindi movies he has made. So, there is no question why his sea-facing duplex flat house is exceptionally lavish. Though, nobody knows the exact value of this house. It is positioned in Juhu, specifically in Prime Beach.

4. Salman Khan

salman-house

Abdul Rashid Salim Salman Khan, the well-known Indian actor who is famously known as Salman Khan possesses the Galaxy Apartments, which is a very expensive house in India. This house is worth Rs. 16 crores. He lives in such superior size of a house for a purpose. At first floor of this house, he entertains his fans who want to see him personally.

3. Aamir Khan

aamir-khan-house

Aamir Khan is earning a considerable amount of money from his tremendously successful career in Bollywood. So, it’s not at all surprising why he can afford to buy the most luxurious things in the world just like houses. He possesses an extremely expensive home that is worth Rs. 60 crores.

2. Amitabh Bachchan

Amitabh_Pratiksha_Lawn

Amitabh-Bunglow

This 73-year-old Indian actor has already been in the Bollywood industry for several years. Hence, there’s no question why he possesses a very expensive house in India. It is said that he holds five houses within the city of Mumbai. Yet, his Jalsa mansion where his family lives has an estimated worth of Rs. 112 crores.

1. Shah Rukh Khan

Mannat

SRKs-house-

Shah Rukh Khan, who occurs to be the second richest actor in Bollywood, owns the stunning and luxurious mansion being referred to as Mannat. The estimated value of this mansion is about Rs. 200 crores. It is located in Bandra, Mumbai. The best thing about this house is that it can never be demolished as it was declared as a heritage site.

These are the 7 most expensive Indian celebrity houses. Watching these houses in real will completely put you in the state of amazement.

dubai-sailboat-hotel

What Are The Types of Frame Structures

Frame structures are the constructions having a blend of column, beam & slab to bear the adjacent and gravity loads. These structures are generally used to overcome the large moments emerging owing to the applied loading.

Frame structures types:

Frames structures can be categorized as:

1. Rigid frame structure

Which can be further differentiated as:

  • Fixed ended
  • Pin ended

2. Braced frame structure:

Classification:

  • Portal frames
  • Gabled frames
frame-structures advantages

Rigid Structural Frame

 

The word rigid implies the ability to stand the deformation. Rigid frame structures can be defined as the structures having columns & beams, made monolithically & acting together to tolerate the moments which are producing as a result of applied load.

Rigid frame structures offer further stability. These kinds of frame structures bear the moment, shear & torsion more efficiently as compared to any other type of frame structures. This is the reason, why this frame system is utilized in world’s most amazing structure Burj Al-Arab.

Braced Structural Frames

 

With this frame system, bracing are commonly provided between columns & beams to surge their resistance besides the sideways forces and lateral forces because of applied load. Bracing is typically done by positioning the diagonal members amid the columns & beams.

This frame system offers more effective resistance against the wind forces & earthquake and is also more effective than the rigid frame system.

braced-frame-structures

Pin Ended Rigid Structural Frames

A pinned ended rigid frame system commonly has pins as their support conditions. If its support conditions are removed, this frame system is reflected to be non-rigid.

pinned frame Structure

Fix Ended Rigid Frame Structure:

In this kind of rigid frame systems end conditions are generally fixed.

Fix Ended Rigid Frame Structure

Gabled Structural Frame:

Gabled frame structures have the peak at their top. These frames systems are used in the places with chances of heavy rainfall or snowfall.

Portal Structural Frame

Portal structural frames generally look like a door. This frame system is much in use for construction of commercial & industrial buildings.

portal-frames

Load first transmits from slab to beams, then to from beam to columns, and then from columns it handovers it to the base.

load path

Merits of Frame Structures

  1. Frame structures can be constructed rapidly.
  2. One of the best benefits of frame structures is their ease in construction. It is very easy to train the labor at the construction site.
  3. As economy also plays a very important role in the design of building systems. Frame structures have economical designs.

Demerits of Frames:

In frames structures, span lengths are typically restricted to 40ft when normal reinforced concrete. Or else spans larger than that can source lateral deflections.

Olympic Park Top View

Rio 2016: How will the Olympic Park look?

In six months at the Rio Olympics, a wide range of settings will greet sports & athletes fans, from the magnificent Maracana stadium to a sewage-filled bay.

This is the first time the Summer Games are hosted by a South American city & the challenge has been made all tougher for Brazil since the economy went into free-fall.

According to organizers, the best news is that nearly all stadiums & arenas are either complete or 97% prepared.

But then with Brazil’s recession showing no let-up, the pressure is on.

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Roi Olympic Park 2016

STORY OF FOUR CITIES

For the Rio Olympics, Brazil’s most iconic city has been divided into 4 hubs. The Olympic Park in the well-off western Barra de Tijuca area is the chief complex, which particularly will have most swimming, tennis, gymnastics, judo and wrestling events.

Deodoro, a meek neighbourhood in the northwest of Rio that generally doesn’t get many tourists, will have sports comprising field hockey, riding, rugby sevens and canoeing.

Rowing, sailing, beach volleyball & long-distance swimming events will be conducted at or near the famous Copacabana beach, southern Rio.

Some dazzling events — the opening & closing ceremonies and athletics competitions — will be held in two northern football stadiums: the famous Maracana & the Joao Havelange stadium, now also known as the Olympic Stadium.

The football tournament will be spread around the country at former 2014 World Cup sites, before final rounds focus in Rio at the Maracana & Olympic stadiums.

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Glimpse of Rio 2016: Olympics Park

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The Museum of Tomorrow is a standout architectural monument in Rio’s harbor zone, revitalized as part of the city’s Olympic preparations.

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Main Press Center or MPC, where all the journalists will gather, while reporting on Rio Olympics.

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The Aquatics Stadium is described by its architects as, “basically a glass box”.

Cable Bridge on Narmada River

Being built on the Narmada River, India’s longest cable bridge, will be launched soon

Bharuch. Gujarat:  The construction work on the India’s longest extra dosed bridge over Narmada River, near Bharuch on National Highway No. 8 is nearly getting its final stage.The unique cable bridge has a distance of 1344 meters and will cost Rs 379 crore. It is planned to be completed by December 2016.
Being built by L & T, the bridge is showing a good sign of relief for those facing traffic at the Sardar Bridge. The cabling work of 10 towers has been completed by 40 percent. The Bridge will be ready by December 2016. Per day 25,000 vehicles would be able to easily pass on.

It will be a four-lane bridge and would necessitate expenses of Rs 379 crore. An extra dosed bridge utilizes a structure that is often described as a cross between a girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge.

A look at bridge
– 1344 m length
– 20.8 m, width
– Tower: 10 by 18 meters high in shape
– yellow cable: 216 (each 25 to 40 meters of cable length)

Bridge being constructed at a cost of Rs 379 crore on these attributes
– 17. 4 meter 4 lane roads.
– Pavement (River View) 3 m.
– Lighting 1.344 km as per international parameters.
– More than 400 LED lights.
– Work began in October 2014.
– Will be completed by December 2016.

A K Sharma, general manager National Highways Authority of India said, “The Bridge will be all set for use by 2016. The work has been allocated to L&T Company. The bridge will have 10 spans & will be around 1.4 km in length. As a part of the extra dosed structural system, the bridge will have stay cables.”

structural engineering companies in india

Know About Structural Engineering/ Structural Design

Structural engineering is the branch of engineering which involves mainly analysis and design of concrete, steel or timber framed structures like, bridges, dams, tall buildings, stadiums, towers, retaining walls and foundation.

The two main areas of structural engineering are:

  • Structural Design
  • Structural Analysis

Good knowledge of structural material and behaviour is required, under different types of loading. As construction materials, concrete and steel are commonly used. In addition to these, pre-cast & pre-stressed concrete are also used. High performance concrete (HPC) is a kind of special concrete which provides solutions to certain situations.

Structural design comprises repetitive cycles of preliminary design, Structural analysis (computation of stress, strain, bending forces, deflection); refined analysis, design revisions & alternatives.

Structural Elements:

Any structure is made up of different types of small elements:

  • Columns
  • Beams
  • Plates
  • Arches
  • Shells
  • Catenaries

Columns:

Columns are elements that carry only compression – axial force – or both bending and axial force (which is precisely called a beam-column but basically, just a column). The design of a column must examine the axial capacity of the element & the buckling capacity.

Beams:

Columns and beams are termed as line elements & are frequently represented by simple lines in structural modelling. A beam may be defined as an element in which one dimension is much larger than the remaining 2 and the applied loads are generally normal to the main axis of the element.

Trusses:

A truss is a structure including 2 types of structural elements; tension members and compression members. Maximum trusses use gusset plates to attach intersecting elements. Gusset plates are comparatively flexible & lessen bending moments at the connections, thus allowing the truss members to carry primarily compression or tension.

Plates

Plates convey bending in two directions. Plates are taught with continuum mechanics, but because of the difficulty involved they are commonly designed using a codified empirical approach, or computer analysis.

 Shells

Shells stem their strength from their form, and transmit forces in compression in two directions. An example is a dome.

Arches

 Arches transmit forces in compression in only one direction that is why it is suitable to build arches out of masonry. They are designed by confirming that the line of thrust of the force stays inside the depth of the arch. It is mainly used to upsurge the bountifulness of any structure.

 Catenaries

Catenaries derive their strength from their form, and carry transverse forces in pure tension by deflecting. They are almost always fabric or cable structures. A fabric structure acts as a catenary in two directions.

Gaffney Peach water tower | StrucCore

Most Coolest Water Tanks & Everything You’d Like To Know About Them

Most water towers are pretty simple machines. Clean, treated water is pumped up into the tower, where it’s stored in a large tank that might hold a million or so gallons—enough water to run that particular city for a day. When the area needs water, water pumps utilize the pull of gravity to provide high water pressure. Because they work with gravity, they have to be taller than the buildings they’re providing water to in order to reach the highest floors. Each additional foot of height in a water tower increases water pressure by .43 pounds per square inch.

Another important role for a city infrastructure is to keep water high off the ground plays. It allows regions to use smaller water pumps. In general, water demand for a city fluctuates throughout the day. Lots of people are taking showers before work and school, but fewer people are running a lot of water at 3 a.m. With no a water tower, the municipality would have to buy a water pump big and powerful enough to keep up with peak demand in the mornings, which would then largely go to waste during less busy parts of the day for water usage (plus incur extra costs). As an alternative, municipalities can acquire a pump just large enough to satisfy the region’s average water demand for the day, and let the power of the water tower take over during the times with demand that exceeds the pump’s capabilities. When water demand goes down at night, the pump can replace the water in the tower. Also, if the power goes out & the city’s water pumps fail, the water tower can keep water running smoothly for at least 24 hours.

However we have some coolest water designs to share with you:

  1. Peachoid, Gaffney, South Carolina – Located along Interstate 85, the Peachoid, also known by the locals as Mr. Peach,is 135 feet (45 meters) tall and can hold one million gallons of water. The tower became even more famous after it was the central plot point in an episode of House of Cards featuring Kevin Spacey. Gaffney_Peach_water_tower
  2. Brooks Catsup Bottle Water Tower, Collinsville, Illinois– This water tower was constructed in 1949, claimed to be the largest catsup bottle in the world, to supply water to the nearby Brooks catsup plant. The idea to design the water tower as a catsup bottle came from Gerhart S. Suppiger – the president of the company. After the plant closed in 1993, the structure was repaired and restored by volunteers.Collinsville_watertower
  3. Corn water tower, Rochester, Minnesota – This huge water tower is located near the Seneca Foods factory in Rochester, Minnesota, and is obviously shaped like a corn.corn_water_tower_Minnesota
  4. Leaning Tower of Niles, Niles, Illinois – Built in 1934, this amazing water tower was renovated in 1996. This is not the Leaning Tower of Pisa, but a copy half the size of the original. The replica is located in Pisa’s sister city – Niles, Illinois, and it is actually a water tower.Leaning_Tower_of_Niles
  5. House in the Clouds, Thorpeness, England – This water tower was built in 1923 to receive water pumped from Thorpeness Windmill. In 1979, when there was no longer a need for the water tower, the water tank was removed from the structure and the building became a home with 5 bedrooms and 3 bathrooms. A structure that started as a water tower disguised as a house, ended up being a house.House_in_the_Clouds_Thorpeness
  6. Old Lady, Szeged, Hungary – This beautiful water tower in the city of Szeged is known between the locals as the Old Lady.Water_tower_Old_Lady_Hungary
  7. Kuwait City water towers, Kuwait City, Kuwait – This group of mushroom shaped water towers was built in 1979 and is located in Kuwait City, the capital city of Kuwait. Kuwait_Water_Towers
Project Management Process

Project Management Basic Stages:

Project Management Institute, Inc. (PMI) outlines project management as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools & techniques to a wider range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project.” The Struccore management team provides project leadership & maintains the effort on the construction schedule. While monitoring the work and progress of trades, we also effectively communicate with the project participants, provide project documentation, facilitate coordination, & follow-up on issues until fixed. It maximizes the value our clients get for their construction budget.

The course of directing & controlling a project from start to end may be divided into 5 basic stages:

  1. Project Conception & Initiation

An idea for a project will be sensibly inspected to decide whether or not it welfares the organization. During this stage, a decision making team identifies if the project can convincingly be done.

  1. Project Definition & Planning

A project scope, project charter or project plan may be written, outlining the work to be completed. Throughout this stage, a team should prioritize the project, compute a budget & schedule, and determine what resources will be required.

  1. Project Launch/Execution

Resources’ tasks are allocated & teams are informed about their tasks. This is a good time to mention important project associated information.

  1. Project Performance & Control

Project managers will relate project status & progress to the actual plan, as resources are performing the scheduled work. In this phase, project managers may need to adjust schedules or do what is essential to keep the project on path.

  1. Project Close

Later, when the project responsibilities are accomplished & the client approves the conclusion, an assessment is necessary to spot project success and/or learn from project history.

From industry to industry, projects & project management processes vary; though, these are more traditional elements of a project. In order to benefit the organization, the principal goal is naturally to offer a product, change a process or to solve a problem.

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