structural engineering companies in india

Know About Structural Engineering/ Structural Design

Structural engineering is the branch of engineering which involves mainly analysis and design of concrete, steel or timber framed structures like, bridges, dams, tall buildings, stadiums, towers, retaining walls and foundation.

The two main areas of structural engineering are:

  • Structural Design
  • Structural Analysis

Good knowledge of structural material and behaviour is required, under different types of loading. As construction materials, concrete and steel are commonly used. In addition to these, pre-cast & pre-stressed concrete are also used. High performance concrete (HPC) is a kind of special concrete which provides solutions to certain situations.

Structural design comprises repetitive cycles of preliminary design, Structural analysis (computation of stress, strain, bending forces, deflection); refined analysis, design revisions & alternatives.

Structural Elements:

Any structure is made up of different types of small elements:

  • Columns
  • Beams
  • Plates
  • Arches
  • Shells
  • Catenaries


Columns are elements that carry only compression – axial force – or both bending and axial force (which is precisely called a beam-column but basically, just a column). The design of a column must examine the axial capacity of the element & the buckling capacity.


Columns and beams are termed as line elements & are frequently represented by simple lines in structural modelling. A beam may be defined as an element in which one dimension is much larger than the remaining 2 and the applied loads are generally normal to the main axis of the element.


A truss is a structure including 2 types of structural elements; tension members and compression members. Maximum trusses use gusset plates to attach intersecting elements. Gusset plates are comparatively flexible & lessen bending moments at the connections, thus allowing the truss members to carry primarily compression or tension.


Plates convey bending in two directions. Plates are taught with continuum mechanics, but because of the difficulty involved they are commonly designed using a codified empirical approach, or computer analysis.


Shells stem their strength from their form, and transmit forces in compression in two directions. An example is a dome.


 Arches transmit forces in compression in only one direction that is why it is suitable to build arches out of masonry. They are designed by confirming that the line of thrust of the force stays inside the depth of the arch. It is mainly used to upsurge the bountifulness of any structure.


Catenaries derive their strength from their form, and carry transverse forces in pure tension by deflecting. They are almost always fabric or cable structures. A fabric structure acts as a catenary in two directions.

Gaffney Peach water tower | StrucCore

Most Coolest Water Tanks & Everything You’d Like To Know About Them

Most water towers are pretty simple machines. Clean, treated water is pumped up into the tower, where it’s stored in a large tank that might hold a million or so gallons—enough water to run that particular city for a day. When the area needs water, water pumps utilize the pull of gravity to provide high water pressure. Because they work with gravity, they have to be taller than the buildings they’re providing water to in order to reach the highest floors. Each additional foot of height in a water tower increases water pressure by .43 pounds per square inch.

Another important role for a city infrastructure is to keep water high off the ground plays. It allows regions to use smaller water pumps. In general, water demand for a city fluctuates throughout the day. Lots of people are taking showers before work and school, but fewer people are running a lot of water at 3 a.m. With no a water tower, the municipality would have to buy a water pump big and powerful enough to keep up with peak demand in the mornings, which would then largely go to waste during less busy parts of the day for water usage (plus incur extra costs). As an alternative, municipalities can acquire a pump just large enough to satisfy the region’s average water demand for the day, and let the power of the water tower take over during the times with demand that exceeds the pump’s capabilities. When water demand goes down at night, the pump can replace the water in the tower. Also, if the power goes out & the city’s water pumps fail, the water tower can keep water running smoothly for at least 24 hours.

However we have some coolest water designs to share with you:

  1. Peachoid, Gaffney, South Carolina – Located along Interstate 85, the Peachoid, also known by the locals as Mr. Peach,is 135 feet (45 meters) tall and can hold one million gallons of water. The tower became even more famous after it was the central plot point in an episode of House of Cards featuring Kevin Spacey. Gaffney_Peach_water_tower
  2. Brooks Catsup Bottle Water Tower, Collinsville, Illinois– This water tower was constructed in 1949, claimed to be the largest catsup bottle in the world, to supply water to the nearby Brooks catsup plant. The idea to design the water tower as a catsup bottle came from Gerhart S. Suppiger – the president of the company. After the plant closed in 1993, the structure was repaired and restored by volunteers.Collinsville_watertower
  3. Corn water tower, Rochester, Minnesota – This huge water tower is located near the Seneca Foods factory in Rochester, Minnesota, and is obviously shaped like a corn.corn_water_tower_Minnesota
  4. Leaning Tower of Niles, Niles, Illinois – Built in 1934, this amazing water tower was renovated in 1996. This is not the Leaning Tower of Pisa, but a copy half the size of the original. The replica is located in Pisa’s sister city – Niles, Illinois, and it is actually a water tower.Leaning_Tower_of_Niles
  5. House in the Clouds, Thorpeness, England – This water tower was built in 1923 to receive water pumped from Thorpeness Windmill. In 1979, when there was no longer a need for the water tower, the water tank was removed from the structure and the building became a home with 5 bedrooms and 3 bathrooms. A structure that started as a water tower disguised as a house, ended up being a house.House_in_the_Clouds_Thorpeness
  6. Old Lady, Szeged, Hungary – This beautiful water tower in the city of Szeged is known between the locals as the Old Lady.Water_tower_Old_Lady_Hungary
  7. Kuwait City water towers, Kuwait City, Kuwait – This group of mushroom shaped water towers was built in 1979 and is located in Kuwait City, the capital city of Kuwait. Kuwait_Water_Towers
Project Management Process

Project Management Basic Stages:

Project Management Institute, Inc. (PMI) outlines project management as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools & techniques to a wider range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project.” The Struccore management team provides project leadership & maintains the effort on the construction schedule. While monitoring the work and progress of trades, we also effectively communicate with the project participants, provide project documentation, facilitate coordination, & follow-up on issues until fixed. It maximizes the value our clients get for their construction budget.

The course of directing & controlling a project from start to end may be divided into 5 basic stages:

  1. Project Conception & Initiation

An idea for a project will be sensibly inspected to decide whether or not it welfares the organization. During this stage, a decision making team identifies if the project can convincingly be done.

  1. Project Definition & Planning

A project scope, project charter or project plan may be written, outlining the work to be completed. Throughout this stage, a team should prioritize the project, compute a budget & schedule, and determine what resources will be required.

  1. Project Launch/Execution

Resources’ tasks are allocated & teams are informed about their tasks. This is a good time to mention important project associated information.

  1. Project Performance & Control

Project managers will relate project status & progress to the actual plan, as resources are performing the scheduled work. In this phase, project managers may need to adjust schedules or do what is essential to keep the project on path.

  1. Project Close

Later, when the project responsibilities are accomplished & the client approves the conclusion, an assessment is necessary to spot project success and/or learn from project history.

From industry to industry, projects & project management processes vary; though, these are more traditional elements of a project. In order to benefit the organization, the principal goal is naturally to offer a product, change a process or to solve a problem.

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Roles & Responsibilities: Construction Project Manager

A Project Manager (PM) has the overall duty for the effective planning, execution, monitoring, control & closure of a project. They must have a blend of skills counting an ability to ask sharp questions, spot unstated assumptions & resolve clashes, along with more general management expertise.

The Role

A Project Manager is a fundamental figure of any Service Team. They will be mainly answerable for the complete success of carrying out a project, attaining set marks both correctly & safely.

They must be able to perform well within the time-span, hold onto strict budgets & make an optimistic client environment such that clients turn out to be/stay in a good relationship throughout the contract.

They will bring about a set of service deliveries, which must be accomplished on time to guarantee all tasks in the program are finished on time. To overcome specific task, project managers must indicate initiative & be capable enough to find methods that best adapt a state to offer a positive overall critical path analysis.

A PM will be likely to back the growth of the leadership, both on-site and back in the workplaces. They will need to systematise the best team possible to complete the project, although training & teaching the employees on the way to the company’s core values. Praise of quality & excellence in work will lead to a great reputation among clients.


  • Plan the on hand delivery of the project.
  • Organize the day-to-day utilisation, working, implementation & technical consultants involved on client assignments. Starting from making sure the correct material turns up in advance of the job, to explaining the work activities and ethics to associates.
  • Plan and organize visits to current & new potential clients, confirming that every client gets enough provision to improve their relationships.
  • Report progress on projects by appropriate media to sector management, preserve and update project reporting, checkpoints & financial reporting to a high standard.
  • Co-ordinate required support levels and training.
  • Develop contacts with senior staff, directors, and other important staff within each account during the implementation phase.
  • Generate reports on each project at fixed intervals, and whenever substantive actions are required.
structural engineering companies in india

Things to Know About Structural Drawings

The first thing required for the development of structural framework of the building by design and construction professionals, are structural drawings. For the actual development of structural framework of the building, engineering solutions such as structural steel detailing structural drafting services, precast detailing, rebar detailing, and structural design services such as structural modeling and analysis are enormously essential. When it comes to the development of highly strong structure, structural detailing & drafting are the prime necessities.

During preconstruction, many different types of Structural Drawings are created by construction & design professionals which comprise structural shop/fabrication drawings, chimney drawings, structural connection drawings & erection drawings etc. Throughout the structural drafting process, all these drawings are generated by trained drafters with the close collaboration of structural engineers who keep on directing them. Other technical and highly important drawings which are also made during structural drafting contain roof, truss & joint drawings & foundation plan drawings etc. When it comes to the design & construction of structural framework, the role of structural drafters and detailers cannot be overlooked by engineers, architects, fabricators and contractors etc. They are solely answerable for the detailed development of fabrication drawings, erection drawings detailed technical plans and reports etc., when it comes to the importance of structural detailers.

All types of structural drawings, whether developed by detailers or drafters, must be revised, observed and approved by structural engineers before they are finally optimized by design and construction professionals for the actual development of structural framework.

Fabrication drawings and erection drawings must be made with extreme accuracy among all the above mentioned structural drawings, since they are optimized by design and construction professionals for extremely severe purposes which consist of manufacturing of structural parts & their eventual installation. Quality of those drawings can never ever be negotiated which are utilized by fabricators for manufacturing steel components as it can disturb the entire project very harmfully. Hence drawings formed for the optimization of manufacturers and steel erectors must be studied with high attention by structural services engineers so that no difficulties are confronted by them.

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Fabrication Drawings

We bridge the gap between Design and Fabrication

What are Fabrication Drawings?

As compared to Manufacturing Drawings, fabrication drawings are generally used for 1 off’s or per job/project bases.


They are manly used in:

  1. Sheet Metal
  2. Structural Steel
  3. Ballustrading/Handrails
  4. Stairs
  5. Architectural Steelwork


pl2665044-steel_structure_industrial_shed (1)

Manufacturing Drawings are split into 2 types:

1. Part Drawing

These drawings point the part itself that require fabrication for use e.g. by the welder. They also indicate the material and surface finish.

The drawings should comprise the following material. (On the other hand, they should not display further information than is required.) :

  • Linear Dimensions including Tolerances
  • Material Specification
  • Flat patterns including bend lines
  • Weld Location & Type
  • Weight
  • Angular Dimensions including Tolerance

2. Assembly Drawing

As per the complexity, Assembly drawing are often classified into a Top Level Assembly & Sub-Assemblies. This is to give more precision for the full product. Assembly drawings should comprise:

  • All parts to be fabricated
  • All Sub-Assemblies used within the assembly
  • Fixings such as Nuts, Bolts, Washers etc.
  • All bought in parts comprising their specific part numbers, supplier or manufacturer
  • Cut Lists stating angles & length
  • Bill of materials (BOM) showing a full list of all parts
  • The drawings should be shown in a way to obviously show how the Fabrication fits together. This should/could contain several views (Top, Plan, Side, Isometric etc.) & Exploded Views
  • Additional information that might be essential such as Weight, assembly instructions should also be included if needed.

It is significant that good quality drawings show all the information that is required, but no more than needed. An example is to many dimensions or to many views.


What Fabrication Drawings do we offer?

Struccore offers complete set of Fabrication Drawings for wide range of industries. We believe that in order to produce good quality fabrication that will aid an excellent installation on site a certain amount of coordination is required between all parties involved.

We are used to synchronizing with architects, structural engineers and steel manufacturers to create General Assembly Drawings & the subsequent detailed drawings showing connections, holes etc.

Our service prides itself in working closely with all parties involved to ensure any queries get raised and answered prior to fabrication commences.

What information is needed to create Fabrication Drawings?

It depends on the industry involved.

For Structural Steel Fabrication Drawings (including, Ballustrading, Stairs, Architectural Steelwork etc.) we generally work from the Structural Engineers Line Drawings in combination with the Architectural Drawings. We would normally visit site to check any potential clashes.


How much do Fabrication Drawings cost?

All are Fabrication Drawings are usually quoted on a fixed price basis as we are normally able to quantify the work easily. All we need is the Structural Engineering Drawings or Architectural Drawings in order to provide a fixed price.



Schedule of bars (or bar bending schedule) is a list of reinforcement bars, with regard to a known RCC work item, and is offered in a tabular format for easy visual reference. This table sums up all the required specifics of bars as diameter, length of each bent, a total length of each bar, a shape of bending & straight portions, number of each type of bar and angles of bending. This statistics is a great benefit for preparing an estimate of quantities.

Figure 1 depicts the shape and proportions of hooks and bends in the reinforcement bars these have adhered to the standard proportions:

(a) Length of one hook = (4d) + [(4d+ d)]  where, (4d+ d) denotes to the curved portion = 9d.

(b) The additional length (la) that is presented in the simple, straight end-to-end length of a reinforcement bar due to being bent up at say 30o to 60o, but it is generally 45o) = l1 l2= la




Fig 1: Hooks and bends in Reinforcement

Giving different values to respectively), we get different values of la, as shown below:


Figure 2 shows the technique to reach the length of hooks & the total length of a given steel reinforcement.


Fig: Typical Bar Bending Schedule



Amazing Uses of Glass in Architecture

Selgas Cano Architecture Office


In the middle of a quiet Spanish forest, the Selgas Cano Architecture Office is a glass shell of creativeness.  The ceiling and outer wall of the office is entirely open to the nature surrounding it, due to a clear curved wall of glass.  All through the 4 seasons, the employees for Selgas Cano are directly in sync with environment.

Sears Tower Glass Balconies


A hint of glass buildings can add a fresh new perception and a whole lot of fear to the already rising heights of the Sears Tower (also known as the Willis Tower).  The Sears Tower Glass Balconies range from near the building’s top at 1,353 feet.  The sight from the Sears is a matchless way of seeing the city of Chicago. They’ve added a new aspect to the Sears Skydeck experience.

Farnsworth House by Mies van der Rohe


Being one of the modern period’s most eminent works of glass architecture, the Farnsworth House is a piece that pushed the envelope in the usage of glass in architecture.  The home sorts floor-to-ceiling glass all through, giving an open connection to the riverbank nature of the plot.

Glass Houseboat by X-Architects


The Glass Houseboat takes an obvious encouragement from the Farnsworth House, this time taking the white-beam-and-glass tactic to a sea-faring residence.  This expansive houseboat sports two levels on a pair of pontoons, skinned with floor-to-ceiling glass building in each direction.  Its residents are delighted with unbarred sights of city and sea, the ultimate mobile domicile off the coast of Dubai.

National Grand Theatre of China


The National Grand Theatre of China is a huge dome of titanium and glass, it is also one of greatest architectural works of China’s in last decade.  Located near Tiananmen Square, this glass structure stocks a theatre, an opera & a music hall, joining to seat 5,452 guests at a time.  The dome is focused within an artificial lake, offering a reflective sight of the dome from the lane.

Basque Health Department Headquarters of Bilbao Spain


Bilbao, Spain has developed as an architectural hot spot due to the Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, by Frank Gehry.  While Gehry designed his masterpiece with metal, Coll-Barreu crafted the Basque Health Dept. Headquarters in angular glass with an almost organically-inspired shape. This building is easily amongst the world’s most progressive in form, when it comes to glass in architecture.

Kanagawa Institute of Technology Glass Building


There are none better than this, when it comes to glass offices. You won’t find uninterested cubicle workers in this hall, but a meeting of the minds of the future workers of Japan, fitting together for community and creative projects in one of the chief glass work spaces in the world.  Thanks to a thin glass skin that wraps around its entire exterior, it is huge, monumental even, a piece of architecture whose inner beauty is entirely exposed.

The Louvre Pyramid


French president François Mitterrand, in 1984, appointed architect I.M. Pei to design & construct a new entrance for the iconic Louvre museum.  The Louvre Pyramid was the outcome, one of the well-known works of glass architecture till date.  This great glass pyramid grows out of the square in front of the Louvre at an altitude of 70 feet, comprising of 673 glass sections from base to tip.  Visitors arrive the pyramid to descend below-ground afore ascending again into the main level of the museum.  While the Louvre Pyramid was built in the middle of much critique & controversy, it has been praised by architecture fans as a well-executed merging of modernist & classical architectures.

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Facts About Burj Khalifa You Should Know


  1. The Burj Khalifa stances at 828 meters (2,716.5 feet) tall, rising over Dubai. It’s nearly twice as high as the Empire State Building and three times as high as the Eiffel Tower. Laid end to end, it sections stretch over a quarter of the way round the world.
  2. Apart from being the tallest building in the world, Burj Khalifa has six other World Records:
  • Highest number of stories in the world,
  • Tallest freestanding structure in the world,
  • Highest outdoor observation deck in the world,
  • Highest occupied floor in the world,
  • Tallest service elevator in the world, and
  • Elevator with longest travel distance in the world.
  1. The total load of aluminum used on Burj Khalifa is comparable to that of five A380 aircraft. The mass of the concrete is the same to 100,000 elephants.
  2. Each year 15 million gallons of water are collected sustainably.
  3. It has the lengthiest single running elevator, with 140 levels. The elevators are among the fastest in the world and go 10 meters per second.
  4. The peak of the sphere of the Burj Khalifa can be seen up to 95 kms far.
  5. 12,000 workers were employed on the building per day, at the peak of construction.
  6. It took more than 22 million man-hours, 110,000 tons of concrete, and 55,000 tons of steel rebar to complete the giant building.
  7. Excavation began in January 2004. The Burj Khalifa finally opened in January 2010, six years later.
  8. Burj Khalifa is intended to bear a resemblance to the Hymenocallis flower; the central core appears at the top and concludes in a sculpted spire.

Failure Reason of Kolkata Bridge

On 31st March 2016, The Vivekananda Road Flyover shrunken at 12.25 pm, killing minimum 24 and wounding 80 in north Kolkata’s Girish Park area.  Eye-witnesses fear at least hundreds are still stuck. The flyover is situated in a heavily occupied wholesale marketplace, Barrabazaar, with a full traffic passing all day under it.

Since 2009, the flyover has been under construction and has wasted 9 closing dates until now.








Cause of failure: The great structure is a compound design. RCC deck is stayed over steel girder. Such planning is very costly but most harmless structure. The previous day there was concreting. At times a portion of deck mainly cantilever portion falls due to failure of provisional backing such as brackets etc. But such downfall occurs when concreting work is in advancement because wet concrete weigh up more than set-concrete. (Wet concrete is 3000 Kg per Cum whereas set concrete is 2400 kg/cum). From photographs it’s clear that the pier cap botched thus bringing down two spans maintained over it. Failure of pier has numerous causes.

Design aspect: It was well-known from the start that in line for traffic load and space constraint, the fly over had to be built not limiting the traffic movement. Therefore design has taken care of this part giving all steel structure. Although very expensive, steel structure is the safest structure. Standard design is checked with STAAD.PRO and therefore it can be determined that there was no defective design. Additional all other spans were alright proving that this pier/pier cap had some problems.

Execution aspect: Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of such execution always necessities to confirm approved material sourcing, fabrication by expert workforce, pre-inspection and post inspection after assembling, detailed scrutiny of the whole thing in the list before any more load is applied. IVRCL is a reputed organization and the concerned government department too is likely to be non-compromising on quality matters mainly when it is being implemented while traffic is permitted to move beneath it.

I consider that there must be some fault of omission, which might have occurred. After doing positively most of spans sometimes mid-level & junior level engineers becomes bit satisfied. Thus inspection might be done calmly neglecting serious flaws either in joints of pier cap/pier or by mistake some surplus eccentric loading being done due to piling up construction materials. These are called human errors.

Who should be held accountable: While executing such workings, as a senior person I use to check the lot personally in spite of declaration from mid-level engineers that they have tested thoroughly. There is nothing wrong if expert and senior people check it once again as even a slight overlook may cause a serious disaster like this. Thus I think the project manager in Kolkata flyover incident was maybe over reliant on on his/her mid-level engineers missing his responsibility.

The supervising agency (in this case the concerned government department) has the duty to cross check the whole thing despite the agency is contract bound for structure and public safety. The concern engineers of supervising department must be held liable.

Third department to be held responsible is traffic police department. When such work is being fulfilled traffic division has mandatory responsibility of public safety. They may not be engineers but they could take essential safety necessities as commonsense.


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