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Factors to be considered in planning industrial plant

The industrial plant should be designed only after a complete production plan, plant layout and equipment sequences are determined so that the building exactly fits the production needs of the plant. It is necessary to keep in mind all factors that may affect the functioning of the plant in the building.

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Some of the important factors in planning company buildings are as follows:-
1. Nature of Manufacturing Process
The type of construction process is the main determinant of plant buildings. The flat load, headspace, bay size etc., depended on the type of instruments or machines and equipment to be used.

2. Plant Layout
The form of instruments, help centers, and office practice significant control on the design and construction development of plant buildings. In case, labor pattern should be defined first and the building should be only a shell nearby this design. However, preparation for versatility should be made to meet the ultimate requirements.However, provision for flexibility should be made to meet the future needs.

3. Space Requirements
The area of factory buildings depends upon space requirements for the current flow and accommodation of materials, for the location of tools or machines, for service centers and for movement of employees. The height of the dome or ceiling depends upon the type of machine used. Use of overhead conveyors and tall accessories or equipment may need high roofs. But specific structures and additional costs may be involved. Pits may be dug, if possible, to provide all equipment.

4. Material Handling
Simplify in stock handling assists in the conversion of manufacturing cycle time avoids production bottlenecks and decreases material handling cost. Conveyor belts hoists, Cranes, etc., are frequently used for simple handling of materials. A modification in the number of columns and the maintenance of the ceiling at a desirable height are important to the use of material handling equipment. It is obvious that the requirements of efficient material handling equipment affect the building design. Conversely, the components of the factory building affect a firm’s ability to use this machine efficiently.

5. Plant Protection
The building should be so designed that there is sufficient stability of plant from an explosion, fraud, etc. Sprinkler system policy, fire rescue exits, automated alarms, outside hydrant, protection lights etc., may be used for this purpose.

6. Lighting
Brightness and Illumination system at intervals the plant uses a very important management on employees’ productivity and exhaustion. Therefore, lighting standards ought to be unbroken insight whereas plant coming up with.

7. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
It is completely common for large plants to provide separate constructions for providing high-forceful boilers. Their area will depend on melting conditions for production. Proper air-conditioning is necessary to provide sufficient fresh air. Some production processes need significant ventilation or managed temperature and moisture. Air conditioning is expressly common in the factory and other offices. Developing costs of power or energy have driven to new trends in warming, lighting and air conditioning. The rightful requirements of the Factories Act should also be met.

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8. Service Facilities
Dexterities recounting to cooling towers, emergency power, compressed air, sewage treatment, etc., should also be considered in plant building. Waste control should be such that regulations regarding air and water decomposition, etc., are not disrupted.

9. Accessibility
The factory building should be designed to ensure free movement of workers in the plant.

10. Aesthetic Considerations
Forces should be made to establish the building a comfortable place to work for the employees. Their encouragement should receive top preference as they consume a lot of their entire working hours in the industry. The structure should have an elegant impression as this adds to the pride and influence of the employees and the management. Any charming, well-designed plant promotes area goodwill. It also has an impact on employees’ confidence. Such a plant proposes the progressive outlook of the organization. It is heartening to note that some management has spent special consideration to this factor at present demand.

11. Appearance
The developmental style and construction materials should be designed to give an engaging surface to plant buildings. A pleasant appearance, good garden setting, and clean surroundings are important to the local district.

12. Future Expansion
Ultimate development needs should be examined in planning a factory structure. If multi-storied structures are to be expanded with additional stages, it must be planned in advance so that the primary structure has the adequate footing to bear the additional pressure.

13. Fire Protection
Necessity and concern for a fire security system should be taken into account while planning for a factory building. This has become necessary at today. Fire security systems differ from the traditional fire extinguishers to automated heat indicators and fire security devices in industries.

14. Environmental Protection
Need to protect the environment has to be considered while planning a plant layout. This is being vigorously advocated all over the world now. It has become statutory in India too. This involves assuring greenbelt all around the industry, floriculture and profluent disposal and water/air handling plant and wastage control systems, etc.

15. Effluent disposal
Wheresoever chemical processes are used in electroplating, tanneries, etc., profluent treatment of the emancipated water has become necessary. Hence a company building has to be designed for a profluent distribution system.

16. Air supply
While creating a plan for a factory building, needed care has to be taken for satisfactory Air supply. This can be achieved through sufficient air compressors.

17. Contractors, consultants, and collaborators
It is pleasing that the construction work is trusted to well-known consultants, undergone in constructing industrial buildings. The plan of the factory and its layout also depends on the direction of contributors — Indian and foreign when projects are produced as per professional collaboration between such parties.

18. Cost-economics
This is an essential aspect of a building. Excellent management preparation and efficient monitoring by use of modern managerial aids like PERT/Milestones can take down the cost of production considerably. Usually, the cost of production goes up due to delay in accomplishment, changes in the design, delay of work during construction, deletions of the initial design.
A different source of lavish investment is due to poor planning and acquisition of elements, use of inferior rank materials and lack of effective guidance. So a factory building plan has to take into account of all expense factors.

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What is Formwork?

A Formwork is brief or everlasting molds into which concrete or similar substances are poured. in the context of concrete construction, the falsework helps the shuttering molds.

Formwork and concrete form types

Formwork comes in several types:

1. Traditional wood formwork. The formwork is constructed on site out of wooden and plywood or moisture-resistant particleboard. It is easy to provide but time- consuming for larger structures, and the plywood going through has a distinctly short lifespan.It`s still used extensively wherein the labor costs are lower than the costs of buying reusable formwork. It is also the maximum flexible kind of formwork, so even wherein other systems are in use, complicated sections can also use it.


2. The Formwork device or System of an engineer. This is constructed out of prefabricated modules with a metallic frame (usually metallic or aluminum) and included on the application (concrete) aspect with a material having the desired surface structure (steel, aluminum, wooden, and so on). The two important benefits of formwork structures, compared to traditional wood formwork, are speed of creation (modular systems pin, clip, or screw collectively quickly) and lower life-cycle charges (barring principal pressure, the frame is sort of indestructible, whilst the protecting if made from wood; may additionally ought to be replaced a few – or some dozen uses, but if the overlaying is made of metallic or aluminium the shape can obtain up to two thousand uses relying on care and the packages).

3 .Plastic formwork which is re-usable. This interlocking and modular device or systems are used to construct extensively variable, however quite simple, concrete systems or structures. The panels are lightweight and very much strong. They may be especially proper for similar structure task/projects and low-cost, mass housing schemes.

4. The Permanent Insulated Formwork. This formwork will be assembled on site, usually out of insulating concrete forms (ICF). The formwork remains in a region after the concrete has cured, and may offer advantages in phrases of speed, strength, advanced thermal and acoustic insulation, space to run utilities in the EPS layer, and included furring strip for cladding finishes.

5. Live-In-Place structural formwork structures or systems.The formwork was assembled on site, usually out of prefabricated fiber-reinforced plastic forms. These are in the shape of hollow tubes and are generally used for columns and piers.This formwork remains in an area after the concrete has cured and acts as axial and shear reinforcement, in addition to serving to confine the concrete and save you in opposition to environmental outcomes, together with corrosion and freeze-thaw cycles.
6. Bendy formwork. In comparison to the rigid molds defined above, bendy formwork is a structures or system which uses lightweight, high power sheets of fabric to gain of the fluidity of concrete and create exceptionally optimised, architecturally exciting, building a bureaucracy(forms). The use of flexible formwork it is possible to forge optimised structures that use substantially much less concrete than an equal electricity prismatic phase.

Slab formwork (deck formwork)

  • History
    Some of the earliest examples of concrete slabs were constructed with the aid of Roman engineers. Due to the fact concrete is pretty strong in resisting compressive masses but has fantastically terrible tensile or torsional energy, these early structures consisted of arches, vaults, and domes. The most highly notable concrete structure from this era is the Pantheon in Rome.
  • Traditional slab formwork
    At the Dawn of the rival of concrete in slab systems or structures, building techniques for the temporary structures have been derived again from masonry and carpentry. The traditional slab formwork method consists of help out of lumber or younger tree trunks, that aid rows of stringers assembled a kind of 3 to 6 toes or 1 to 2 meters aside, depending on a thickness of the slab. Between these stringers, joists are located roughly 12 inches, 30 centimeters aside upon which boards or plywood are positioned. The stringers and joists are generally 4 by 4 inches or 4 by 6-inch lumber. The maximum common imperial plywood thickness is a ¾ inch and the maximum common metric thickness is18 mm.
  • Steel/Metal beam slab formwork
    Just like the traditional method, but stringers and joist are replaced with aluminum forming structures/systems or metallic beams and supports are replaced with steel props. This also makes this approach extra systematic and reusable. Aluminum beams are fabricated as telescoping units which allows them to span supports that are located at various distances aside. Telescoping aluminum beams can be used and reused within the creation of structures of varying length.


  • Modular slab formwork

Structures or systems are consist of prefabricated timber, metal or aluminum beams and formwork modules. Modules are often no larger than 3 to 6 feet or 1 to 2 meters in length. The beams and formwork are generally set by way of hand and pinned, clipped, or screwed together. The benefits of a modular machine/system are: does not require a crane to an area the formwork, a velocity of construction with unskilled exertions, formwork modules can be removed after concrete units leaving only beams in location prior to achieving layout strength.



Flexible Pavements


Types Of Pavements


Pavements form the basic structure in route transportation. Every layer of pavement incorporates a multitude of functions to perform that needs to be punctuallyconsidered throughout the planning method. Different types of pavements may be adopted relying upon the traffic needs.


1. Flexible pavements and

2. Rigid pavements

  1. Flexible Pavement

Flexible pavements will transmit wheel load stresses to the lower layers by grain-to-grain transfer through the points of contact among the granular structure (see Figure shown below).

Flexible Pavements In flexible pavements, wheel loads are transferred by grain-to-grain contact of the combination through the granular structure. The flexible pavement, having less flexural strength, acts sort of a flexible sheet (e.g. bituminous road).
The wheel load working on the pavement are progressing to be distributed to a large area, and additionally the stress decreases with the depth.

Taking advantage of those stress distribution characteristic, flexible pavements ordinarily has several layers.

Hence, the look of flexible pavement uses the idea of layered system. A typical cross section of the flexible pavement is shown below.Typical cross section

The lower layers can expertise lesser magnitude of stress and calibre material will be used. flexible pavements are created using bituminous materials. These will be either within the kind of surface treatments (such as bituminous surface treatments usually found on low volume roads) or, asphalt concrete surface courses (generally used on high volume roads such as national highways). Flexible pavement layers replicate the deformation of the lower layers on to the surface layer (e.g., if there is any undulation in sub-grade then it’s going to be transferred to the surface layer). Within the case of flexible pavement, the planning is predicated on overall performance of flexible pavement, and the stresses produced should be unbroken well below the allowable stresses of every pavement layer.


1. conventional layered flexible pavement,

2.Full – depth asphalt pavement

3. Contained rock asphalt mat (CRAM).

  • Conventional flexible pavements area unit layered systems with fine quality dear materials are placed among the high wherever stresses are high, and quality low-priced materials are placed in lower layers.

  • Full – depth asphalt pavements are created by inserting bituminous layers directly on the soil subgrade.

  • Contained rock asphalt mats are created by inserting dense/open ranked combination layers in between 2 asphalt layers. changed dense ranked asphalt concrete is placed on top of the sub-grade can significantly cut back the vertical compressive strain on soil sub-grade and shield from surface water.


Rigid pavements have comfy flexural strength to transmit the wheel load stresses to a wider area below. A typical cross section of the rigid pavement is shown below.Rigid Pavement

Rigid Pavement

Compared to flexible pavement, rigid pavements are placed either directly on the ready sub-grade or on one layer of granular or stable material.Since there is only one layer of material between the concrete and thus the sub-grade, this layer are called as base or sub-base course.Elastic Plate

Rigid pavements are made by portland cement concrete (PCC) and will be analyzed by plate theory rather than layer theory, assuming an elastic plate resting on viscous foundation. Plate theory could be a simplified version of layer theory that assumes the concrete block as a medium thick plate that is plane before loading and to stay plane when loading. Bending of the block due to wheel load and temperature variation and the ensuing tensile and flexural stress.


1. Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP),

2. Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP),

3. Continuous reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP)

4 .Pre-stressed concrete pavement (PCP).

Types of Doors


There are huge types of doors and windows which can either be made or are accessible in the market ready to be fixed. Depending on the material of manufacture, some of their sorts alongside their main features, merits and demerits are offered here to encourage simple determination for the house proprietor.

1 Timber Wood


Customarily, timber or wood as it is prevalently known has been the mainstay for the manufacture of doors/windows. Its main advantage being its local availability of material and the simplicity with which it can be made by the local craftsmen.

Without further ado wide range of wood are accessible in the market and its choice ought to be made in light of the properties of life span and the financial plan of the owner. In spite of the fact that they can be utilized for all areas as a part of the house, they are best put for exterior areas.Timber is most normally being utilized for making of doors/windows.

2 Battened & Ledged Doors


Battened and ledged doors are the easiest type of doors and are being used for ages. Such doors comprise of vertical wooden battens of the stature of the door with around 35 mm thicknesses which are typically tongue and groove joint. Generally, three edges (level individuals) are given, one each at the top and base and one in the center.

Battened and ledged entryways can likewise be either braced or braced and framed to offer strongness and better appearance.Such doors are ordinarily used for toilets, showers, WC and furthermore in houses where the economy is of prime thought.

3 Framed & Paneled Doors


These kind of doors and windows are most usually used in the houses. The frame for the door is made of wood and the shutter panels with timber, plywood, piece board, hardboard. Various design plans can be made on the boards, in this manner making such door entirely brightening.

The panels can similarly be made out of glass. In situations where part of the door is in wooden panels and the remaining is of glass panels, the door is known as paneled and glazed. Such entryways have a flexible design which can look tastefully satisfying. The plan can be made as per the requirement and area in the house. The door frame for such sorts of doors can be made out of wood itself or of metal segments like steel.

4 Flush Doors


A flush door is a totally smooth door, having plywood or Medium Density Fiberboard over timber frame which is relatively light. The hollow core so acquired is frequently filled with a cardboard core material.

Flush doors are most regularly used in the inside of an abode, despite the fact that with a few varieties they are also utilized as exterior doors in houses.The frames for such doors can be made of wood, steel and so on, which can hold its weight. The doors are generally pivoted along one side to permit the way to open in a single way.Flush doors are generally given in houses nowadays because of the reasons of budget, appearance, solidness and so forth, and are usually accessible in the market.While giving these ways to toilets, showers; the internal face of the door ought to be secured with aluminum sheets to give insurance against water.Frames for such doors/windows can be made in any of the conventional ways.

5 Glass Doors


A glass is generally used for doors and windows, for the most in paneling. In any case, if the owner so wants, doors can be made out of glass for particular locations. Regularly such doors are given on the backside of the house as it gives an unobstructed view of the lawn or garden.

Front doors made of glass are similarly lovely, yet care ought to be taken to guarantee both protection and strength. Cut glass panels set into wooden edges are an incessant and wonderful alternative for front doors. Such doors are expensive and require great support.They are normally heavier than other doors other than being expensive.

6 Steel Doors


Steel or other such metal construction has been utilized for quite a long time as they are productive and are a durable choice for interior and exterior doors alike. These entryways can be either be hollow or solid.

It has been observed to be a decent substitute for wood and is being utilized widely to make frames. The frames can be made out of points, Tee, channels or pressed steel plates. Holdfasts and hinges are typically welded to the frame if there should arise an occurrence of steel frames.

Normal shutters made out of wood can be fixed on these steel frames.Steel frames are entirely prevalent and are being utilized widely for houses and different areas as they are sparing than the customary wooden frames.Shutters can likewise be made out of Mild Steel (MS) sheets, welded or bolted to a frame of angle iron or channel segment, appropriately supported.Steel doors can likewise be made of high caliber in cold rolled mild steel, precision engineered. They are durable requiring minimum maintenance. They are accessible in wonderful shades with different wood grain finishing.These can constantly be utilized where security is of a more noteworthy concern.

7 PVC Doors


PVC is a typical term for Poly Vinyl Chloride. It is essentially a plastic material generally utilized for making different items including water tanks, funnels, and fittings for houses. The utilization of PVC for the manufacturing of doors has turned out to be exceptionally famous and a vast assortment of the same are accessible in the market in various designs and colors.

The merits of utilizing PVC doors are that they are termite confirmation, solid, hostile to destructive, lightweight, dampness safe and so forth. They are likewise simple to manufacture and install.In any case, they are not suited for entry doors as they are light in weight, not weatherproof like wooden or metal doors, so they can’t avoid the cruel environmental conditions.Such doors available and can turn out to be more economical when contrasted and wooden doors.

8 Fiberglass Doors


Fiberglass is a glass which is drawn into fibrous frame and woven into fabric. It is solid, light and non-combustible and has a high rigidity. Glass strands bonded with resin that can be utilized to wide range of items including bathtubs, door and windows and so on.

Fiberglass is considered to stand out amongst the most hardened materials with generally low maintenance costs as related to wood and steel.Fiberglass doors are relied upon to be steady as they don’t twist, bow or contort. They are froth filled and offer great insulation properties.They can likewise be painted according to design.Doors and windows made out of fiberglass can be given wooden panels at first glance to enhance the feel. Entryways made out of fiberglass can be utilized for both outside and inside areas. The outside entryways have originator alternatives, for example, angled glass and entryway stiles.These doors are accessible in the market to coordinate any design style.

9 Fiber Reinforced Plastic Doors


Fiber Reinforced Plastics famously known as FRP is a general term relating with the fortification of plastic with fibrous glass. Because of its high quality it can be put to numerous utilizations including manufacturing of doors. Normally, the elasticity is around ten times that of PVC. FRP formed doors are accessible in numerous colors and finishes incorporating normal wood finish in the market. The standard door thicknesses are 30/35 mm and are accessible with fire retardant properties.

These doors can likewise have two leaves of 1.5 mm thickness. The leaves are shaped over a core material framing a sandwich board.Essential wooden supports are accommodated for fixing the handles, locks, stoppers and other accessories. FRP doors are in huge demand nowadays for use in modern houses.

10 Aluminium Doors


Aluminum is a metal which has been put to huge number of applications due to being light in weight. An extensive number of items made out of aluminum are accessible in the market including doors, windows, partitions and much more.

Aluminum frames for doors and windows have the advantage of resisting tough weather conditions. Being light in weight they exchange less loads to the base. Aluminum frames are not influenced by termites and all things considered they are longer enduring.Doors and windows made out of aluminum can be side hung or sliding and are reasonable for outside or inside areas.Stylishly they are very satisfying and are entirely practical over the long haul.


Top 14 Key Measurements for Designing the Living Room

Whether you are laying out a living room for your first flat or arranging one for your new personalized home, understanding the size of furniture and its relationship to the room can help you make a comfortable and functional space. The main thing to remember is that you need the proportions of the furniture to arrange with the proportions of the room. Small scale furniture can be pretty much as comfortable as overstuffed upholstery if you shop shrewdly. A rule of thumb is to purchase the most affordable and astounding quality things you utilize very frequently, and spare cash on things you don’t use much.

11.A Single Couch

This customized tight-back contemporary couch keeps this little living room flawless. Sofas are used very frequently in common families. Get a decent one with the goal that it holds up, feels good and keeps up its looks. Overall couches are around 84 inches (213 cm) in length and 38 in. (98 cm) depth. Try to find a couch that is 72 in. (183 cm) long for a modest apartment & spare the 96-in. (244-cm) overstuffed one for the farm house.


This outline demonstrates a few bits of furniture normally found in a living room. Your prerequisites will differ, however the standards are the same. You need the room to flow around the furniture for circulation, & furthermore have clear ways to the seating areas & exit points. Circulation ways require 30 to 36 in. (77 to 91 cm) of clear width. You can put espresso or drink tables near to 12 in. (30 cm) from the edge of the seating. Different furniture may require no less than 24 in. (61 cm) between pieces for individuals to effectively move around. Another essential thought is the conversation arc. Put furniture in a manner that individuals can listen to each other without much of a stretch when seated. Eight feet (244 cm) is perfect; bigger rooms may be broken into seating bunches.


2.A Sectional

The cousin to the couch is the sectional, as found in this small scale room. Sectionals more often occupy more space, yet when set carefully, they can be extremely comfortable. See how the rich shade of this sectional anchors the generally ethereal plan. The modern metal seat set in the opposite side is an additional seat for when a company drops by. Basically made up of two couches put opposite to each other, sectionals include a lot of seating so that other upholstered furniture isn’t required. Similarly as with couches, sectionals come in different sizes. Two 84-in. (213-cm) sectional sorts out need a space that is 7 feet (213 cm) wide and 10 feet (305 cm) long, which is generally a huge partition of a room.


In moderate design this bended contemporary sofa transforms into itself, making its own particular conversation arc. Couches like this one, and other formed couches, ordinarily consume up more room than normal. This case is around 11 feet (335 cm) long and needs a total depth of around 54 in. (137 cm). The pleasantly adjusted furniture situation supplements the off-center fireplace.


3.Multiple Sofas

Whenever space and budget allow, a few couches can be masterminded around oversize cocktail tables, as has been done in this transitional space. See that the square table is focused between the two couches facing each other, while the narrow table serves the couch opposite the stone fireplace. Despite the fact that this space breaks out of the 8-foot conversation arc, every couch is its own seating bunch. The lower roof looks after closeness, and a generous flow space around the room keeps every couch’s seating zone adequately private. A room should be no less than 20 feet (610 cm) square for a course of action this way.


4.Love Seats

When you require some additional seats and you simply don’t have space for a couch, consider a love seat. Love seats are generally around 5 feet (152 cm) long. The depth fluctuates relying upon the style. You can combine one with a couch in the same plan or set only it, as has been done in this room.


5.Lounge Chairs

Lounge chairs typically swivel, rock and lean back, so they require additional space. See that this beige leather lounger sits far from the wall in order to work as proposed. When you consolidate it with a ottoman, you will need to consider the ottoman’s impression and additional space for somebody to stroll around both pieces easily.



Two arrangements of chairs offers a seating in this expansive room, alongside a couch. You will see that the seats in the forefront are put with the goal that you value their sculptural form thus the view into the room is kept up. The upholstered seats sit at the back, since they are bigger and take up more pace. One can easily move around the exemplary twisted plywood Eames seats here.


7.Stools and Benches

When you need a brightening touch, consider putting stools and benches in your design. Stools might be 16 to 20 in. (41 to 51 cm) square; seats are around 14 to 18 in. (36 to 46 cm) deep and 36 to 60 in. (91 to 152 cm) long. In this living room, two sublimely detailed stools finish a keenly eclectic space with extraordinary artfulness.


8.Cocktail and Coffee Tables

 Cocktail and coffee tables regularly are central focuses, since they have a place in the center point of a room. Not just will you need them to look great, yet you will likewise need them to function well. Round and oval-shaped ones can be easier to move around, yet squares and rectangles will give you more surface area.



Formal family rooms are often saved to entertain visitors; in any case, a few people have only one living room and will need to put a TV in it. Since TVs now arrive in a wide range of sizes, planning furniture for them relies on upon which TV is picked and how it’s used. Considering that the normal screen today is 42 to 50 in. (107 to 127 cm), you will need to keep your seating near 10 feet (305 cm) of it. Likewise, deliberately consider the height. Having the screen set 15 to 20 in. (38 to 51 cm) above the floor has dependably worked, however mounting it over a fireplace is turning out to be more regular, as has been done in this room. In such cases, the screen will be 48 to 60 in. (122 to 152 cm) above the floor, and you will look upward from your seating area to see it. It is best to put a TV out of a circulation course with the goal that individuals don’t as often as possible stroll before the set.


10.Sofa Tables

Bigger spaces can oblige sofa tables, as in this formal living room. Most sofa tables are 14 to 20 in. (36 to 51 cm) deep and 60 to 72 in. (152 to 183 cm) long. These are awesome for putting lights upon and for offering balance to couches that buoy in a room. Remember that you should hide electrical lines under carpets or have floor outlets for the lights.

You will see that this space has two seating groups and an assortment of furniture shapes and sizes. The pattern has been to coordinate in sets yet not to have every table from the same line of furniture.


11.Floor Lamps

Bear in mind about floor lights. Maybe a couple of them will enlighten a room uniformly. They likewise arrive in an incredible range of sizes, and you will need to discover one that coordinates with the interior of your room and that supplements the size of your design. Get ready for a space that is no less than 10 to 12 in. (25 to 31 cm) in distance across and 54 to 84 in. (137 to 213 cm) in height.


12.End Tables

With regards to end tables, consider a blend of scales and finishes. This room has an additional punch of enthusiasm from the metal and glass tables, which measure around 18 in. (46 cm) in distance across. Square and rectangular tables ordinarily run from 20 to 30 in. (51 to 76 cm) in either course. On the off chance that they are to hold table lights, be sure that they are sufficiently huge for the size of light that you pick and that they permit different things to be set around them (for instance, coasters for drinking glasses).



Though pianos are less common than in the past, there is nothing like having a baby grand to make a living room feel more complete. If you don’t know how to play one, you can get the type that plays electronically. If you entertain lavishly or want to have lots of fun at your parties, this is the ticket. The smallest grand pianos are about 60 in. (152 cm) wide and 60 in. (60 cm) long. Larger ones are around 72 in. (183 cm) long. Allow for a bench that is about 20 in. (51 cm) wide and 42 in. (107 cm) long as well. Based on these dimensions, it is wise to allow a clear floor space that’s at least 7 feet (213 cm) wide and 10 feet (305 cm) long to accommodate a grand piano.



Before committing to all of the furnishings that you wish to place in your living room, think about your artwork. Large paintings need generous wall space and ideally should be displayed farther from the entry points so that they can be seen by someone entering a room. A good tip is to hang them low enough so that the top is just above eye level. Sculptures as well need their own space and should be placed so that they can be viewed enjoyably. Allow floor space in proportion to the size of the sculpture. Pedestals should not be more than 16 in. (41 cm) in diameter, or should be square and have dimensions relative to the scale of the sculpture.


iron making

Reinforcement Manufacturing Process (Guide)

Reinforcement Manufacturing Process:

Iron Making

Iron making through BF and DRI course utilizing virgin iron metal bumps and fines mined through environment well-disposed procedures.

Steel Making

State-of-the-art steel making technology using Blast Furnace(BF) + Direct-Reduced Iron(DRI) – Electric Arc Furnace(EAF) – Ladle Refining Furnace(LRF) – Continuous Casting Machine route producing clean steel billet, with very low levels of Sulphur and phosphorous (less than 0.035%) and very low levels of inclusion and tramp elements.


Manufacturing Process Chart


Steel Bar

Steel Rolling:

World’s most developed Morgan Rolling Mill sending HYQST innovation, to create TMT of reliably fantastic completed with programmed cutting and pressing.

  • Digital Furnace Reheating:

Walking Beam Type Digital Furnace, which guarantees uniform warming yet guarantees less fuel utilization.

  • Secondary Descaler:

To ensure scale free rolling using high pressure jets at 230 bar.

  • Rolling (In Closed Boxes):

12m long insulated roller table, which guarantees rolling at a gap of 5 sec. Transports the handled segments, as a free bar, from Breakdown Mill to Continuous Mill. Minimizes temperature misfortune from head and last part. Protected spread holds billet segment’s temperature.

  • No Twist Mill:

Constant Rolling through alternate V-H Mill, which guarantees a more prominent rate. Mill Train for appropriate rolling of completed segments. Bed assembly includes V-H bed assembly.

  • HYQST Controlled Quenching & Tempering:

Thermo-Mechanically Treated (TMT) Rebar’s include a blend of plastic deformation of steel in austenitic stage took after by extinguishing and further self-hardening in 90m long cooling bed.


The hot rolled bar leaves the finishing plant stand at 1050° Celsius which is quickly quenched in a water box. This is a chamber where water is made to encroach on the surface of the rebar at high pressure by split style spout with microchip based controlled cooling process. The quenching changes over the TMT’s surface layer to marten site and makes it shrink. The shrinkage pressurizes the center shaping the right precious stone structures, while the center stays hot and austenitic.


The bar leaves the quench box with a temperature gradient through its cross-area, and as the bar cools, heat streams from the bar’s inside to its surface so that the bar’s warmth and pressure accurately tempers a transitional ring of marten site and bainite.

Atmospheric Cooling:

At last, the moderate cooling subsequent to quenching consequently tempers the austenitic center to ferrite and pearlite on the cooling bed, which now has a solid and intense, tempered marten site at first glance layer of the bar: a middle layer of extreme marten site and bainite and a refined, pliable ferrite and pearlite center.

material handling system

Material Handling System & Equipment

Material handling equipment is mechanical hardware utilized for the development, stockpiling, control and security of materials, merchandise and items all through the way toward assembling, circulation, utilization and transfer.

Design of Material Handling Systems:

A typical way to deal with the configuration of MH frameworks (MHSs) is to consider MH as an expense to be minimized. This methodology might be the most proper by and large in light of the fact that, while MH can increase the value of an item, it is normally hard to distinguish and evaluate the advantages connected with MH; it is much less demanding to recognize and measure the expenses of MH (e.g., the expense of MH hardware, the expense of aberrant MH work, and so forth.). Once the outline of a creation procedure (restrictive of MH contemplations) is finished, substitute MHS plans are created, each of which fulfills the MH necessities of the generation procedure. The minimum cost MHS outline is then chosen. Different types of material handling equipment:

  1. Transport Equipment
  •   Cranes
  •  Conveyors
  •  Truck loading
  •  Industrial trucks
  •  Rail loading
  •  Bagging
  •  Ship loading
  1. Positioning Equipment
  2. Unit Load Formation Equipment
  3. Storage Equipment
  • Covered/open stockpiles
  • Open silos

Material Handling System Conveyer and Stacker :


Conveyors are utilized when material is to be moved every now and then between particular focuses over an altered way and when there is an adequate stream volume to justify the fixed conveyor investment. Diverse sorts of conveyors can be described by the kind of item being taken care of: unit load or mass load; the conveyor’s area: in-floor, on-floor, or overhead, and regardless of whether burdens can collect on the conveyor. Amassing permits discontinuous development of every unit of material transported along the transport, while all units move at the same time on conveyors without collection capacity. For instance, while both the roller and level belt are unit-load on-floor conveyors, the roller gives amassing ability while the level belt does not; comparably, both the force without and trolley are unit-stack overhead conveyors, with the force sans and intended to incorporate an additional track so as to give the collection capacity ailing in the trolley conveyor. Instances of bulk-handling conveyors incorporate the attractive belt, troughed-belt, pail, and screw transports. A sortation conveyor system is utilized for consolidating, recognizing, enlisting, and isolating items to be passed on to particular goals, and normally comprises of level belt, roller, and chute conveyor fragments together with different moveable arms and/or pop-up haggles that redirect, push, or draw items to various goals.


Belt Coal Handling System


Coal Handling System


Stacker is a substantial machine utilized as a part of mass material taking care of. Its capacity is to heap mass material, for example, limestone, minerals and oats on to a stockpile. A recovered can be utilized to recoup the material.

Stackers are ostensibly appraised for limit in tons every hour (tph). They regularly go on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard. A stacker can for the most part move in no less than two bearings: evenly along the rail and vertically by luffing (raising and bringing down) its blast. Luffing of the blast minimizes dust by lessening the separation that material, for example, coal needs to tumble to the highest point of the stockpile. The blast is luffed upwards as the stature of the stockpile increments. A few stackers can turn the blast. This permits a solitary stacker to shape two stockpiles, one on either side of the transport.

Stackers are utilized to stack in various examples, for example, cone stacking and chevron stacking. Stacking in a solitary cone tends to bring about size isolation, with coarser material moving out towards the base. In crude cone handle stacking, extra cones are added by the principal cone. In chevron stacking, the stacker goes along the length of the stockpile including endless supply of material.

Stackers and Reclaimers were initially physically controlled, without any method for remote control. Advanced machines are commonly self-loader or completely computerized, with parameters remotely set. The control framework utilized is commonly a programmable rationale controller, with a human-machine interface for showcase, associated with a focal control framework.

Other than stacking, a stacker has three essential developments:

  • Luffing:This is vertical development. Stackers utilize either a winch component with metal wire, or water powered barrels, for the most part two. Winch systems are profoundly solid contrasted with pressure driven actuators and remain generally utilized, especially in expansive stackers.
  • Travelling: The stacker proceeds onward a rail track, which might be wide or slender gage, empowering it to move around the stockyard as required. For this reason, footing engines controlled by direct present (DC) are associated by incline apparatuses to somewhere around 12 and 22 wheels. For manual control, every one of the controls are in a controller’s lodge over the blast transport or blast. Cutting edge stackers can be controlled remotely.
  • Slewing: This is turn of the stacker around its focal hub to adjust or put the stockpile where required. This works for the most part by a huge number pinion that pivots around a large number base. This kind of apparatus get together is known as a sun and planet gear. The axles might be different and are driven by DC-fueled hub engines which transmit the torque by means of incline or helical apparatuses.




Residential Space Planning

Steps for Residential Space Planning

Residential Space planning is about the organizing the interior space for providing clients with very efficient & commercially helpful use of a building`s layout. We know how space should be used & develop spatial provision that go ahead the schedule of accommodation to achieve a creative & proficient configuration.

Evaluating the client`s needs

  1. An effective design satisfactorily accommodates within a structure the lifestyle & specific requirements of the user.
  2. Determine detailed needs of the client
  • Prepare a list that includes design concerns and needs
    • Family size & structure
    • Family or individuals interests & activities
    • Location of site
    • Number of levels
    • Budget of project
    • Zoning ordinances and covenants
    • Architecture style


  1. One story homes are usually compatible with a limited number of architectural styles and have the prospective to be more costly if located on a larger site.
  2. One & one-half story homes utilize the attic as a living space through structural elements including a steep roof and dormers projecting from the roof to let in air and light.
  3. Two story homes are inexpensive to build since of smaller roof & foundation area.
  4. Split-level homes are developed for a sloping lot, & separate sleeping, living, & recreation on different levels.

Traffic patterns

  1. Are a primary consideration in designing a functional plan.
  1. Main traffic areas include the halls, stairs, foyers, entrances to rooms & exterior entrances.
  1. Travel should be short and if possible not pass through other rooms.
  2. Trace various routes through the house to examine traffic flow.
expensive homes

Top 10 Most Expensive Homes (2016)

“A house is the most valuable asset in one`s life, where everyone manages a perfect mix of safety and comfort for their loved ones. Though,fore those who can afford beautiful & luxurious houses, their houses are a reflection of their personal style and taste. As money is not a very big issue for them, they spend millions on building their houses unique & extraordinary.

Here is The List of Top 10 Most Expensive Homes in India 2016:

  1. NCPA Apartments, Mumbai

NCPA Apartments in Mumbai is located in high-class area of Nariman Point, and makes a very posh housing option in India. One would need to shell out an inflated price of Rs 29-35 crore, to possess a 4 bedroom apartment here.

  1. Gautam Singhania Residence, JK House, Mumbai


JK House at Breach Kandy in Mumbai is absolutely, one of the costliest and most luxurious houses, which belongs to Gautam Singhania. It also has some astonishing facilities such as a museum, a helipad & a health center. The house has total 30 floors, out of which 6 are kept back for only parking.

  1. Vijay Mallya Residence, White House in the Sky, UB City Bangalore


Vijay Mallya, the ostentatious business magnate, who owns Kingfisher Airlines in addition to UB Group, possesses a luxurious house, which he calls “White House in the Sky”. This luxurious mansion style home has been built in UB City & is worth well over Rs 100 crore.

  1. Shashi Ruia & Ravi Ruia Residence, New Delhi

The Chairman of Essar Group, Shashi Ruia & the Vice Chairman, Ravi Ruia owns one of the most luxurious bunglows in India. This house is located on the well-known Tees January Marg & is worth a huge Rs 120 crore.

  1. Rana Kapoor Residence, Tony Altamount Road, Mumbai

The CEO of Yes Bank, Rana Kapoor, has of late acquired a luxurious house situated at Tony Altamount Road. This building, which was earlier possessed by Citi Group, was recently acquired by Kapoor, by paying a huge sum of Rs 120 crore.

  1. Naveen Jindal Residence, Delhi

Next is the stunning house of industrialist-politician Naveen Jindal, which is situated in one of the most expensive vicinities of the city, the Leafy Lutyens Bungalow Zone in Delhi. This house is prized around Rs 125-150 crore.

  1. Ratan Tata Residence, Colaba, Mumbai

Presenting next on the list is the splendid bungalow of businessman Ratan Tata, which has worth Rs 125-150 crore. The three storied grand house shields an area of 15000 sq feet & has several outstanding facilities.

  1. Shahrukh Khan Residence, Mannat, Mumbai

The beautiful house of Bollywood super star, Mannat, is considered as one of the most lavish homes in the nation. It is located in the Bandra area of Mumbai & is valued at Rs 125-150 crore. The house lives up to the reputation of the super star.

  1. Anil Ambani Residence, Abode, Mumbai


Making it to the top of this list, the Ambani brothers, with Anil Ambani having a home called Abode constructed, which is computed to touch a cost of Rs 5000 crore & even more.

  1. Mukesh Ambani Residence, Antila, Mumbai


Antila, the residence of Mukesh Ambani, is on the top of this list with its worth reaching an implausible Rs 10000 crore. Having an area of 400000 sq foot, Antila is no less than a landmark in Mumbai & has all modern amenities, which are even hard to imagine.

Furthermore, many expensive & beautiful houses are owned by the famous & rich people in India. These people consist of politicians, film stars & well-known sportspersons, who don’t mind expending millions on their homes.

amazing bridges in india

Top 10 amzing bridges in India

  1. Naini Setu

    Located: Across Yamuna River, near Allahabad

    Opened: 1865

    One of  the longest & oldest bridges that pass through the Yamuna, the Naini Setu boasts of both road & rail compatibility. Upper deck has two-lane railway line & lower deck has road line working ever since 1927.

  2. Narmada Setu

    Located: Across Narmada River, near Bharuch

    Opened: 1881


    Also recognised as the Golden bridge, Britishers built this linkage to join to the main city Bombay (Now Mumbai) for all dealing purposes.

  3. Godavari Setu

    Located: Across the Godavari river, near Rajahmundry

    Opened: 1900


    Also known as Havelock Bridge, this old bridge is presently used to transport civic provisions whilst waiting to be acknowledged as a monument. It is one of the longest bridges connecting the then Howrah and Madras.

  4. Pamban Setu

    Located: Across the Palk strait, near Rameshwaram

    Opened: 1913


    The first sea bridge & also one of the longest in its type, this bridge connects the historical Rameshwaram to the mainland. It has double leaf bascule section midway for ships and barges to pass through.

  5. Rabindra Setu

    Located: Across the Hooghly River
    Opened: 1943


    Also known as Howrah Bridge, Kolkata’s iconic landmarks, carries the weight of 150,000 walkers and 100,000 automobiles on a regular basis. It could be the busiest cantilever bridge in the world.

  6. Saraighat Setu

    Located: Across the Brahmaputra River, near Saraighat

    Opened: 1962


    It’s the first rail-cum-road bridge crossways the Brahmaputra river. Inaugurated by Prime Minister Jawarlal Nehru, this bridge has been productively joining North East to the rest of the country for more than 50 years.

  7. Mahatma Gandhi Setu

    Located: Across the Ganges river, Patna

    Opened: 1982


    It is one of the longest river bridges crossing the divine river of Ganges in India. This rail-cum-road bridge was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.

  8. Vidyasagar Setu

    Located: Across the Hooghly River, Kolkata

    Opened: 1992


    Known as the second Hooghly Bridge, this is the other iconic bridge of West Bengal, which is also the longest cable-stayed bridge in India.

  9. Vikramshila Setu

    Located: Across the Ganges, near Bhagalpur

    Opened: 2001


    It is the thridrd longest bridge on water in India and joins two National Highways (NH-31 and NH-80). It is also only a road bridge with pedestrian footpaths at the boundaries.

  10. Rajiv Gandhi Sea Link

    Located: Across Mahim Bay, Near Bandra (Mumbai)

    Opened: 2009


    Also recognised as the Bandra-Worli Sea link, this bridge is the lengthiest over-the-sea link in India. This was mostly constructed to decrease the traffic bottleneck between these points in Mumbai.


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