Types of Doors


There are huge types of doors and windows which can either be made or are accessible in the market ready to be fixed. Depending on the material of manufacture, some of their sorts alongside their main features, merits and demerits are offered here to encourage simple determination for the house proprietor.

1 Timber Wood


Customarily, timber or wood as it is prevalently known has been the mainstay for the manufacture of doors/windows. Its main advantage being its local availability of material and the simplicity with which it can be made by the local craftsmen.

Without further ado wide range of wood are accessible in the market and its choice ought to be made in light of the properties of life span and the financial plan of the owner. In spite of the fact that they can be utilized for all areas as a part of the house, they are best put for exterior areas.Timber is most normally being utilized for making of doors/windows.

2 Battened & Ledged Doors


Battened and ledged doors are the easiest type of doors and are being used for ages. Such doors comprise of vertical wooden battens of the stature of the door with around 35 mm thicknesses which are typically tongue and groove joint. Generally, three edges (level individuals) are given, one each at the top and base and one in the center.

Battened and ledged entryways can likewise be either braced or braced and framed to offer strongness and better appearance.Such doors are ordinarily used for toilets, showers, WC and furthermore in houses where the economy is of prime thought.

3 Framed & Paneled Doors


These kind of doors and windows are most usually used in the houses. The frame for the door is made of wood and the shutter panels with timber, plywood, piece board, hardboard. Various design plans can be made on the boards, in this manner making such door entirely brightening.

The panels can similarly be made out of glass. In situations where part of the door is in wooden panels and the remaining is of glass panels, the door is known as paneled and glazed. Such entryways have a flexible design which can look tastefully satisfying. The plan can be made as per the requirement and area in the house. The door frame for such sorts of doors can be made out of wood itself or of metal segments like steel.

4 Flush Doors


A flush door is a totally smooth door, having plywood or Medium Density Fiberboard over timber frame which is relatively light. The hollow core so acquired is frequently filled with a cardboard core material.

Flush doors are most regularly used in the inside of an abode, despite the fact that with a few varieties they are also utilized as exterior doors in houses.The frames for such doors can be made of wood, steel and so on, which can hold its weight. The doors are generally pivoted along one side to permit the way to open in a single way.Flush doors are generally given in houses nowadays because of the reasons of budget, appearance, solidness and so forth, and are usually accessible in the market.While giving these ways to toilets, showers; the internal face of the door ought to be secured with aluminum sheets to give insurance against water.Frames for such doors/windows can be made in any of the conventional ways.

5 Glass Doors


A glass is generally used for doors and windows, for the most in paneling. In any case, if the owner so wants, doors can be made out of glass for particular locations. Regularly such doors are given on the backside of the house as it gives an unobstructed view of the lawn or garden.

Front doors made of glass are similarly lovely, yet care ought to be taken to guarantee both protection and strength. Cut glass panels set into wooden edges are an incessant and wonderful alternative for front doors. Such doors are expensive and require great support.They are normally heavier than other doors other than being expensive.

6 Steel Doors


Steel or other such metal construction has been utilized for quite a long time as they are productive and are a durable choice for interior and exterior doors alike. These entryways can be either be hollow or solid.

It has been observed to be a decent substitute for wood and is being utilized widely to make frames. The frames can be made out of points, Tee, channels or pressed steel plates. Holdfasts and hinges are typically welded to the frame if there should arise an occurrence of steel frames.

Normal shutters made out of wood can be fixed on these steel frames.Steel frames are entirely prevalent and are being utilized widely for houses and different areas as they are sparing than the customary wooden frames.Shutters can likewise be made out of Mild Steel (MS) sheets, welded or bolted to a frame of angle iron or channel segment, appropriately supported.Steel doors can likewise be made of high caliber in cold rolled mild steel, precision engineered. They are durable requiring minimum maintenance. They are accessible in wonderful shades with different wood grain finishing.These can constantly be utilized where security is of a more noteworthy concern.

7 PVC Doors


PVC is a typical term for Poly Vinyl Chloride. It is essentially a plastic material generally utilized for making different items including water tanks, funnels, and fittings for houses. The utilization of PVC for the manufacturing of doors has turned out to be exceptionally famous and a vast assortment of the same are accessible in the market in various designs and colors.

The merits of utilizing PVC doors are that they are termite confirmation, solid, hostile to destructive, lightweight, dampness safe and so forth. They are likewise simple to manufacture and install.In any case, they are not suited for entry doors as they are light in weight, not weatherproof like wooden or metal doors, so they can’t avoid the cruel environmental conditions.Such doors available and can turn out to be more economical when contrasted and wooden doors.

8 Fiberglass Doors


Fiberglass is a glass which is drawn into fibrous frame and woven into fabric. It is solid, light and non-combustible and has a high rigidity. Glass strands bonded with resin that can be utilized to wide range of items including bathtubs, door and windows and so on.

Fiberglass is considered to stand out amongst the most hardened materials with generally low maintenance costs as related to wood and steel.Fiberglass doors are relied upon to be steady as they don’t twist, bow or contort. They are froth filled and offer great insulation properties.They can likewise be painted according to design.Doors and windows made out of fiberglass can be given wooden panels at first glance to enhance the feel. Entryways made out of fiberglass can be utilized for both outside and inside areas. The outside entryways have originator alternatives, for example, angled glass and entryway stiles.These doors are accessible in the market to coordinate any design style.

9 Fiber Reinforced Plastic Doors


Fiber Reinforced Plastics famously known as FRP is a general term relating with the fortification of plastic with fibrous glass. Because of its high quality it can be put to numerous utilizations including manufacturing of doors. Normally, the elasticity is around ten times that of PVC. FRP formed doors are accessible in numerous colors and finishes incorporating normal wood finish in the market. The standard door thicknesses are 30/35 mm and are accessible with fire retardant properties.

These doors can likewise have two leaves of 1.5 mm thickness. The leaves are shaped over a core material framing a sandwich board.Essential wooden supports are accommodated for fixing the handles, locks, stoppers and other accessories. FRP doors are in huge demand nowadays for use in modern houses.

10 Aluminium Doors


Aluminum is a metal which has been put to huge number of applications due to being light in weight. An extensive number of items made out of aluminum are accessible in the market including doors, windows, partitions and much more.

Aluminum frames for doors and windows have the advantage of resisting tough weather conditions. Being light in weight they exchange less loads to the base. Aluminum frames are not influenced by termites and all things considered they are longer enduring.Doors and windows made out of aluminum can be side hung or sliding and are reasonable for outside or inside areas.Stylishly they are very satisfying and are entirely practical over the long haul.


Top 14 Key Measurements for Designing the Living Room

Whether you are laying out a living room for your first flat or arranging one for your new personalized home, understanding the size of furniture and its relationship to the room can help you make a comfortable and functional space. The main thing to remember is that you need the proportions of the furniture to arrange with the proportions of the room. Small scale furniture can be pretty much as comfortable as overstuffed upholstery if you shop shrewdly. A rule of thumb is to purchase the most affordable and astounding quality things you utilize very frequently, and spare cash on things you don’t use much.

11.A Single Couch

This customized tight-back contemporary couch keeps this little living room flawless. Sofas are used very frequently in common families. Get a decent one with the goal that it holds up, feels good and keeps up its looks. Overall couches are around 84 inches (213 cm) in length and 38 in. (98 cm) depth. Try to find a couch that is 72 in. (183 cm) long for a modest apartment & spare the 96-in. (244-cm) overstuffed one for the farm house.


This outline demonstrates a few bits of furniture normally found in a living room. Your prerequisites will differ, however the standards are the same. You need the room to flow around the furniture for circulation, & furthermore have clear ways to the seating areas & exit points. Circulation ways require 30 to 36 in. (77 to 91 cm) of clear width. You can put espresso or drink tables near to 12 in. (30 cm) from the edge of the seating. Different furniture may require no less than 24 in. (61 cm) between pieces for individuals to effectively move around. Another essential thought is the conversation arc. Put furniture in a manner that individuals can listen to each other without much of a stretch when seated. Eight feet (244 cm) is perfect; bigger rooms may be broken into seating bunches.


2.A Sectional

The cousin to the couch is the sectional, as found in this small scale room. Sectionals more often occupy more space, yet when set carefully, they can be extremely comfortable. See how the rich shade of this sectional anchors the generally ethereal plan. The modern metal seat set in the opposite side is an additional seat for when a company drops by. Basically made up of two couches put opposite to each other, sectionals include a lot of seating so that other upholstered furniture isn’t required. Similarly as with couches, sectionals come in different sizes. Two 84-in. (213-cm) sectional sorts out need a space that is 7 feet (213 cm) wide and 10 feet (305 cm) long, which is generally a huge partition of a room.


In moderate design this bended contemporary sofa transforms into itself, making its own particular conversation arc. Couches like this one, and other formed couches, ordinarily consume up more room than normal. This case is around 11 feet (335 cm) long and needs a total depth of around 54 in. (137 cm). The pleasantly adjusted furniture situation supplements the off-center fireplace.


3.Multiple Sofas

Whenever space and budget allow, a few couches can be masterminded around oversize cocktail tables, as has been done in this transitional space. See that the square table is focused between the two couches facing each other, while the narrow table serves the couch opposite the stone fireplace. Despite the fact that this space breaks out of the 8-foot conversation arc, every couch is its own seating bunch. The lower roof looks after closeness, and a generous flow space around the room keeps every couch’s seating zone adequately private. A room should be no less than 20 feet (610 cm) square for a course of action this way.


4.Love Seats

When you require some additional seats and you simply don’t have space for a couch, consider a love seat. Love seats are generally around 5 feet (152 cm) long. The depth fluctuates relying upon the style. You can combine one with a couch in the same plan or set only it, as has been done in this room.


5.Lounge Chairs

Lounge chairs typically swivel, rock and lean back, so they require additional space. See that this beige leather lounger sits far from the wall in order to work as proposed. When you consolidate it with a ottoman, you will need to consider the ottoman’s impression and additional space for somebody to stroll around both pieces easily.



Two arrangements of chairs offers a seating in this expansive room, alongside a couch. You will see that the seats in the forefront are put with the goal that you value their sculptural form thus the view into the room is kept up. The upholstered seats sit at the back, since they are bigger and take up more pace. One can easily move around the exemplary twisted plywood Eames seats here.


7.Stools and Benches

When you need a brightening touch, consider putting stools and benches in your design. Stools might be 16 to 20 in. (41 to 51 cm) square; seats are around 14 to 18 in. (36 to 46 cm) deep and 36 to 60 in. (91 to 152 cm) long. In this living room, two sublimely detailed stools finish a keenly eclectic space with extraordinary artfulness.


8.Cocktail and Coffee Tables

 Cocktail and coffee tables regularly are central focuses, since they have a place in the center point of a room. Not just will you need them to look great, yet you will likewise need them to function well. Round and oval-shaped ones can be easier to move around, yet squares and rectangles will give you more surface area.



Formal family rooms are often saved to entertain visitors; in any case, a few people have only one living room and will need to put a TV in it. Since TVs now arrive in a wide range of sizes, planning furniture for them relies on upon which TV is picked and how it’s used. Considering that the normal screen today is 42 to 50 in. (107 to 127 cm), you will need to keep your seating near 10 feet (305 cm) of it. Likewise, deliberately consider the height. Having the screen set 15 to 20 in. (38 to 51 cm) above the floor has dependably worked, however mounting it over a fireplace is turning out to be more regular, as has been done in this room. In such cases, the screen will be 48 to 60 in. (122 to 152 cm) above the floor, and you will look upward from your seating area to see it. It is best to put a TV out of a circulation course with the goal that individuals don’t as often as possible stroll before the set.


10.Sofa Tables

Bigger spaces can oblige sofa tables, as in this formal living room. Most sofa tables are 14 to 20 in. (36 to 51 cm) deep and 60 to 72 in. (152 to 183 cm) long. These are awesome for putting lights upon and for offering balance to couches that buoy in a room. Remember that you should hide electrical lines under carpets or have floor outlets for the lights.

You will see that this space has two seating groups and an assortment of furniture shapes and sizes. The pattern has been to coordinate in sets yet not to have every table from the same line of furniture.


11.Floor Lamps

Bear in mind about floor lights. Maybe a couple of them will enlighten a room uniformly. They likewise arrive in an incredible range of sizes, and you will need to discover one that coordinates with the interior of your room and that supplements the size of your design. Get ready for a space that is no less than 10 to 12 in. (25 to 31 cm) in distance across and 54 to 84 in. (137 to 213 cm) in height.


12.End Tables

With regards to end tables, consider a blend of scales and finishes. This room has an additional punch of enthusiasm from the metal and glass tables, which measure around 18 in. (46 cm) in distance across. Square and rectangular tables ordinarily run from 20 to 30 in. (51 to 76 cm) in either course. On the off chance that they are to hold table lights, be sure that they are sufficiently huge for the size of light that you pick and that they permit different things to be set around them (for instance, coasters for drinking glasses).



Though pianos are less common than in the past, there is nothing like having a baby grand to make a living room feel more complete. If you don’t know how to play one, you can get the type that plays electronically. If you entertain lavishly or want to have lots of fun at your parties, this is the ticket. The smallest grand pianos are about 60 in. (152 cm) wide and 60 in. (60 cm) long. Larger ones are around 72 in. (183 cm) long. Allow for a bench that is about 20 in. (51 cm) wide and 42 in. (107 cm) long as well. Based on these dimensions, it is wise to allow a clear floor space that’s at least 7 feet (213 cm) wide and 10 feet (305 cm) long to accommodate a grand piano.



Before committing to all of the furnishings that you wish to place in your living room, think about your artwork. Large paintings need generous wall space and ideally should be displayed farther from the entry points so that they can be seen by someone entering a room. A good tip is to hang them low enough so that the top is just above eye level. Sculptures as well need their own space and should be placed so that they can be viewed enjoyably. Allow floor space in proportion to the size of the sculpture. Pedestals should not be more than 16 in. (41 cm) in diameter, or should be square and have dimensions relative to the scale of the sculpture.


iron making

Reinforcement Manufacturing Process (Guide)

Reinforcement Manufacturing Process:

Iron Making

Iron making through BF and DRI course utilizing virgin iron metal bumps and fines mined through environment well-disposed procedures.

Steel Making

State-of-the-art steel making technology using Blast Furnace(BF) + Direct-Reduced Iron(DRI) – Electric Arc Furnace(EAF) – Ladle Refining Furnace(LRF) – Continuous Casting Machine route producing clean steel billet, with very low levels of Sulphur and phosphorous (less than 0.035%) and very low levels of inclusion and tramp elements.


Manufacturing Process Chart


Steel Bar

Steel Rolling:

World’s most developed Morgan Rolling Mill sending HYQST innovation, to create TMT of reliably fantastic completed with programmed cutting and pressing.

  • Digital Furnace Reheating:

Walking Beam Type Digital Furnace, which guarantees uniform warming yet guarantees less fuel utilization.

  • Secondary Descaler:

To ensure scale free rolling using high pressure jets at 230 bar.

  • Rolling (In Closed Boxes):

12m long insulated roller table, which guarantees rolling at a gap of 5 sec. Transports the handled segments, as a free bar, from Breakdown Mill to Continuous Mill. Minimizes temperature misfortune from head and last part. Protected spread holds billet segment’s temperature.

  • No Twist Mill:

Constant Rolling through alternate V-H Mill, which guarantees a more prominent rate. Mill Train for appropriate rolling of completed segments. Bed assembly includes V-H bed assembly.

  • HYQST Controlled Quenching & Tempering:

Thermo-Mechanically Treated (TMT) Rebar’s include a blend of plastic deformation of steel in austenitic stage took after by extinguishing and further self-hardening in 90m long cooling bed.


The hot rolled bar leaves the finishing plant stand at 1050° Celsius which is quickly quenched in a water box. This is a chamber where water is made to encroach on the surface of the rebar at high pressure by split style spout with microchip based controlled cooling process. The quenching changes over the TMT’s surface layer to marten site and makes it shrink. The shrinkage pressurizes the center shaping the right precious stone structures, while the center stays hot and austenitic.


The bar leaves the quench box with a temperature gradient through its cross-area, and as the bar cools, heat streams from the bar’s inside to its surface so that the bar’s warmth and pressure accurately tempers a transitional ring of marten site and bainite.

Atmospheric Cooling:

At last, the moderate cooling subsequent to quenching consequently tempers the austenitic center to ferrite and pearlite on the cooling bed, which now has a solid and intense, tempered marten site at first glance layer of the bar: a middle layer of extreme marten site and bainite and a refined, pliable ferrite and pearlite center.

material handling system

Material Handling System & Equipment

Material handling equipment is mechanical hardware utilized for the development, stockpiling, control and security of materials, merchandise and items all through the way toward assembling, circulation, utilization and transfer.

Design of Material Handling Systems:

A typical way to deal with the configuration of MH frameworks (MHSs) is to consider MH as an expense to be minimized. This methodology might be the most proper by and large in light of the fact that, while MH can increase the value of an item, it is normally hard to distinguish and evaluate the advantages connected with MH; it is much less demanding to recognize and measure the expenses of MH (e.g., the expense of MH hardware, the expense of aberrant MH work, and so forth.). Once the outline of a creation procedure (restrictive of MH contemplations) is finished, substitute MHS plans are created, each of which fulfills the MH necessities of the generation procedure. The minimum cost MHS outline is then chosen. Different types of material handling equipment:

  1. Transport Equipment
  •   Cranes
  •  Conveyors
  •  Truck loading
  •  Industrial trucks
  •  Rail loading
  •  Bagging
  •  Ship loading
  1. Positioning Equipment
  2. Unit Load Formation Equipment
  3. Storage Equipment
  • Covered/open stockpiles
  • Open silos

Material Handling System Conveyer and Stacker :


Conveyors are utilized when material is to be moved every now and then between particular focuses over an altered way and when there is an adequate stream volume to justify the fixed conveyor investment. Diverse sorts of conveyors can be described by the kind of item being taken care of: unit load or mass load; the conveyor’s area: in-floor, on-floor, or overhead, and regardless of whether burdens can collect on the conveyor. Amassing permits discontinuous development of every unit of material transported along the transport, while all units move at the same time on conveyors without collection capacity. For instance, while both the roller and level belt are unit-load on-floor conveyors, the roller gives amassing ability while the level belt does not; comparably, both the force without and trolley are unit-stack overhead conveyors, with the force sans and intended to incorporate an additional track so as to give the collection capacity ailing in the trolley conveyor. Instances of bulk-handling conveyors incorporate the attractive belt, troughed-belt, pail, and screw transports. A sortation conveyor system is utilized for consolidating, recognizing, enlisting, and isolating items to be passed on to particular goals, and normally comprises of level belt, roller, and chute conveyor fragments together with different moveable arms and/or pop-up haggles that redirect, push, or draw items to various goals.


Belt Coal Handling System


Coal Handling System


Stacker is a substantial machine utilized as a part of mass material taking care of. Its capacity is to heap mass material, for example, limestone, minerals and oats on to a stockpile. A recovered can be utilized to recoup the material.

Stackers are ostensibly appraised for limit in tons every hour (tph). They regularly go on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard. A stacker can for the most part move in no less than two bearings: evenly along the rail and vertically by luffing (raising and bringing down) its blast. Luffing of the blast minimizes dust by lessening the separation that material, for example, coal needs to tumble to the highest point of the stockpile. The blast is luffed upwards as the stature of the stockpile increments. A few stackers can turn the blast. This permits a solitary stacker to shape two stockpiles, one on either side of the transport.

Stackers are utilized to stack in various examples, for example, cone stacking and chevron stacking. Stacking in a solitary cone tends to bring about size isolation, with coarser material moving out towards the base. In crude cone handle stacking, extra cones are added by the principal cone. In chevron stacking, the stacker goes along the length of the stockpile including endless supply of material.

Stackers and Reclaimers were initially physically controlled, without any method for remote control. Advanced machines are commonly self-loader or completely computerized, with parameters remotely set. The control framework utilized is commonly a programmable rationale controller, with a human-machine interface for showcase, associated with a focal control framework.

Other than stacking, a stacker has three essential developments:

  • Luffing:This is vertical development. Stackers utilize either a winch component with metal wire, or water powered barrels, for the most part two. Winch systems are profoundly solid contrasted with pressure driven actuators and remain generally utilized, especially in expansive stackers.
  • Travelling: The stacker proceeds onward a rail track, which might be wide or slender gage, empowering it to move around the stockyard as required. For this reason, footing engines controlled by direct present (DC) are associated by incline apparatuses to somewhere around 12 and 22 wheels. For manual control, every one of the controls are in a controller’s lodge over the blast transport or blast. Cutting edge stackers can be controlled remotely.
  • Slewing: This is turn of the stacker around its focal hub to adjust or put the stockpile where required. This works for the most part by a huge number pinion that pivots around a large number base. This kind of apparatus get together is known as a sun and planet gear. The axles might be different and are driven by DC-fueled hub engines which transmit the torque by means of incline or helical apparatuses.