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What Are The Types of Frame Structures

Frame structures are the constructions having a blend of column, beam & slab to bear the adjacent and gravity loads. These structures are generally used to overcome the large moments emerging owing to the applied loading.

Frame structures types:

Frames structures can be categorized as:

1. Rigid frame structure

Which can be further differentiated as:

  • Fixed ended
  • Pin ended

2. Braced frame structure:

Classification:

  • Portal frames
  • Gabled frames
frame-structures advantages

Rigid Structural Frame

 

The word rigid implies the ability to stand the deformation. Rigid frame structures can be defined as the structures having columns & beams, made monolithically & acting together to tolerate the moments which are producing as a result of applied load.

Rigid frame structures offer further stability. These kinds of frame structures bear the moment, shear & torsion more efficiently as compared to any other type of frame structures. This is the reason, why this frame system is utilized in world’s most amazing structure Burj Al-Arab.

Braced Structural Frames

 

With this frame system, bracing are commonly provided between columns & beams to surge their resistance besides the sideways forces and lateral forces because of applied load. Bracing is typically done by positioning the diagonal members amid the columns & beams.

This frame system offers more effective resistance against the wind forces & earthquake and is also more effective than the rigid frame system.

braced-frame-structures

Pin Ended Rigid Structural Frames

A pinned ended rigid frame system commonly has pins as their support conditions. If its support conditions are removed, this frame system is reflected to be non-rigid.

pinned frame Structure

Fix Ended Rigid Frame Structure:

In this kind of rigid frame systems end conditions are generally fixed.

Fix Ended Rigid Frame Structure

Gabled Structural Frame:

Gabled frame structures have the peak at their top. These frames systems are used in the places with chances of heavy rainfall or snowfall.

Portal Structural Frame

Portal structural frames generally look like a door. This frame system is much in use for construction of commercial & industrial buildings.

portal-frames

Load first transmits from slab to beams, then to from beam to columns, and then from columns it handovers it to the base.

load path

Merits of Frame Structures

  1. Frame structures can be constructed rapidly.
  2. One of the best benefits of frame structures is their ease in construction. It is very easy to train the labor at the construction site.
  3. As economy also plays a very important role in the design of building systems. Frame structures have economical designs.

Demerits of Frames:

In frames structures, span lengths are typically restricted to 40ft when normal reinforced concrete. Or else spans larger than that can source lateral deflections.

Olympic Park Top View

Rio 2016: How will the Olympic Park look?

In six months at the Rio Olympics, a wide range of settings will greet sports & athletes fans, from the magnificent Maracana stadium to a sewage-filled bay.

This is the first time the Summer Games are hosted by a South American city & the challenge has been made all tougher for Brazil since the economy went into free-fall.

According to organizers, the best news is that nearly all stadiums & arenas are either complete or 97% prepared.

But then with Brazil’s recession showing no let-up, the pressure is on.

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Roi Olympic Park 2016

STORY OF FOUR CITIES

For the Rio Olympics, Brazil’s most iconic city has been divided into 4 hubs. The Olympic Park in the well-off western Barra de Tijuca area is the chief complex, which particularly will have most swimming, tennis, gymnastics, judo and wrestling events.

Deodoro, a meek neighbourhood in the northwest of Rio that generally doesn’t get many tourists, will have sports comprising field hockey, riding, rugby sevens and canoeing.

Rowing, sailing, beach volleyball & long-distance swimming events will be conducted at or near the famous Copacabana beach, southern Rio.

Some dazzling events — the opening & closing ceremonies and athletics competitions — will be held in two northern football stadiums: the famous Maracana & the Joao Havelange stadium, now also known as the Olympic Stadium.

The football tournament will be spread around the country at former 2014 World Cup sites, before final rounds focus in Rio at the Maracana & Olympic stadiums.

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Glimpse of Rio 2016: Olympics Park

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The Museum of Tomorrow is a standout architectural monument in Rio’s harbor zone, revitalized as part of the city’s Olympic preparations.

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Main Press Center or MPC, where all the journalists will gather, while reporting on Rio Olympics.

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The Aquatics Stadium is described by its architects as, “basically a glass box”.

Cable Bridge on Narmada River

Being built on the Narmada River, India’s longest cable bridge, will be launched soon

Bharuch. Gujarat:  The construction work on the India’s longest extra dosed bridge over Narmada River, near Bharuch on National Highway No. 8 is nearly getting its final stage.The unique cable bridge has a distance of 1344 meters and will cost Rs 379 crore. It is planned to be completed by December 2016.
Being built by L & T, the bridge is showing a good sign of relief for those facing traffic at the Sardar Bridge. The cabling work of 10 towers has been completed by 40 percent. The Bridge will be ready by December 2016. Per day 25,000 vehicles would be able to easily pass on.

It will be a four-lane bridge and would necessitate expenses of Rs 379 crore. An extra dosed bridge utilizes a structure that is often described as a cross between a girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge.

A look at bridge
– 1344 m length
– 20.8 m, width
– Tower: 10 by 18 meters high in shape
– yellow cable: 216 (each 25 to 40 meters of cable length)

Bridge being constructed at a cost of Rs 379 crore on these attributes
– 17. 4 meter 4 lane roads.
– Pavement (River View) 3 m.
– Lighting 1.344 km as per international parameters.
– More than 400 LED lights.
– Work began in October 2014.
– Will be completed by December 2016.

A K Sharma, general manager National Highways Authority of India said, “The Bridge will be all set for use by 2016. The work has been allocated to L&T Company. The bridge will have 10 spans & will be around 1.4 km in length. As a part of the extra dosed structural system, the bridge will have stay cables.”

structural engineering companies in india

Know About Structural Engineering/ Structural Design

Structural engineering is the branch of engineering which involves mainly analysis and design of concrete, steel or timber framed structures like, bridges, dams, tall buildings, stadiums, towers, retaining walls and foundation.

The two main areas of structural engineering are:

  • Structural Design
  • Structural Analysis

Good knowledge of structural material and behaviour is required, under different types of loading. As construction materials, concrete and steel are commonly used. In addition to these, pre-cast & pre-stressed concrete are also used. High performance concrete (HPC) is a kind of special concrete which provides solutions to certain situations.

Structural design comprises repetitive cycles of preliminary design, Structural analysis (computation of stress, strain, bending forces, deflection); refined analysis, design revisions & alternatives.

Structural Elements:

Any structure is made up of different types of small elements:

  • Columns
  • Beams
  • Plates
  • Arches
  • Shells
  • Catenaries

Columns:

Columns are elements that carry only compression – axial force – or both bending and axial force (which is precisely called a beam-column but basically, just a column). The design of a column must examine the axial capacity of the element & the buckling capacity.

Beams:

Columns and beams are termed as line elements & are frequently represented by simple lines in structural modelling. A beam may be defined as an element in which one dimension is much larger than the remaining 2 and the applied loads are generally normal to the main axis of the element.

Trusses:

A truss is a structure including 2 types of structural elements; tension members and compression members. Maximum trusses use gusset plates to attach intersecting elements. Gusset plates are comparatively flexible & lessen bending moments at the connections, thus allowing the truss members to carry primarily compression or tension.

Plates

Plates convey bending in two directions. Plates are taught with continuum mechanics, but because of the difficulty involved they are commonly designed using a codified empirical approach, or computer analysis.

 Shells

Shells stem their strength from their form, and transmit forces in compression in two directions. An example is a dome.

Arches

 Arches transmit forces in compression in only one direction that is why it is suitable to build arches out of masonry. They are designed by confirming that the line of thrust of the force stays inside the depth of the arch. It is mainly used to upsurge the bountifulness of any structure.

 Catenaries

Catenaries derive their strength from their form, and carry transverse forces in pure tension by deflecting. They are almost always fabric or cable structures. A fabric structure acts as a catenary in two directions.